Nurses' Opinions of Medication Error and Their Contributing Factors

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Abstract
Patient safety has long been a major concern for healthcare professionals and its significance has been expanded with the increasing need for hospital accreditation. Therefore, the researcher will do additional study to find out nurses’ opinion of medication error and their contributing factors on the (wards at hospital). A cross-sectional study will be utilized and a sample of twenty (20) nurses, ten (10) from each ward will be chosen. A convenience sampling method will be used and data will be collected with the use of questionnaires and interviews. In this study, the perspectives of the experienced nurses concerning medication errors will be investigated. Information gathered will be kept confidential by putting password on the computer and storing all collected data in a locked draw. Data will further be analyzed. In addition, ethical considerations will be highlighted. At the end, it is expected that information gathered will be used to find out nurses’ opinion of medication error and their contributing factors. Keywords: medication errors, nurses’ opinion, contributing factors
Literature Review
Action to improve patient safety in health care systems and, in particular, to reduce the frequency of serious medication errors, is a major priority in some member states. Errors may involve prescribing, dispensing or administration of medicines, or failure to give proper advice, for example, about side effects or cautions. They occur in primary, secondary and tertiary care settings, and often occur at the interface between hospital and primary care. Currently, the health services, especially nursing services, are striving to achieve ever-higher levels of service excellence, aiming to provide care that is free of risk and harm to patients. Adverse events have been considered important indicators of quality of health service and care delivery. Although these are undesirable events, they are commonly observed in care practice and those related to medication errors are themselves frequent. Among patient safety issues such as patient identification, transfusion error, falls and suicide, medication safety has been considered as a major indicator of health-care quality (Mrayyan, Shishani, and Al-Faouri, 2007). The literature on medication errors lacks universally accepted definitions of medication errors as well as different methods and criteria, leaving us with an incomplete knowledge of the actual rate of medication errors. Medication error is defined as any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate use of medications or patient harm (Bates, 2007). Therefore, as stated above, medication errors can be prevented. According to Institute of Medicine (IOM), medication errors injure at least 1.5 million people and the medical costs of treating medication errors related injuries occurring in hospitals alone are approximately 3.5 billion dollars per year (IOM 2007). The rate of medication errors varies from 2 to 14% of hospitalized patients. Medication errors have been estimated to kill 7000 patients per annum and account for nearly one in 20 hospital admissions in the USA and the UK (Tang, Sheu, Yu, Wei, and Chen, 2007). Considering that medication errors are universally under-reported the incidence rate of medication errors is speculated to be even higher. According to (Sanghera et al. 2007), despite the wide variety of health-care professionals involved in the entire process of prescribing, transcribing, dispensing and administering medication, nurses are more frequently involved in medication errors than physicians, pharmacists or other health-care professionals. Administration errors are the most common followed by prescribing errors. In addition, the most common types of medication errors are incorrect medication prescription, inappropriate medication use, wrong administration, and omission of administration (Pepper and Towsley 2007). These findings suggest that medication errors...
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