Nur 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

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History of Community Nursing Matrix

NUR 405 Healthy Communities: Theory and Practice
Sarah Kinnard RN
October 24, 2011
Beth Edwards MSN, BC, FNP

Past period 1
Industrial Revolution

Description of Historical time period
During the industrial revolution technological and economical advances were made with the development of steam powered ships and railroads replacing manual labor with mechanical work. As a result, changes in society and health care needs occurred. Nursing focus shifted from private duty, living with and providing care for one family, to visiting nurses, visiting several families a day.

Nursing role in community
Nursing in the community focused on disease prevention and providing care for the vulnerable such as immigrant workers and the poor. Lillian Wald, the first public health nurse in the United States, provided nursing care and education in poor communities located in New York City. Nursing concentrated on providing and educating the community on proper nutrition and sanitation in an effort to reduce the spread of disease.

Major health issues
Many of the health issues during this time were directly related to poor sanitation and contaminated water supplies. The poor, unable to pay for medical services did not receive adequate medical care increasing mortality. Cholera was a huge health concern during the industrial revolution, killing thousands as it spread through the water and sewage systems of major cities. Typhus, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis also took the lives of many people during the industrial revolution.Florence Nightingale established the first nursing school in the United States, introducing nursing as a profession.

Partnerships used
Visiting nurse associations were established in cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Lillian Wald founded the Henry Street Settlement, providing health care and social services for the local community.

Watson’s theory
Watson's carative factor: development of helping-trusting, human caring relationship was demonstrated during the Industrial Revolution by the establishment of nursing in communities. Relationships evolved from caring for a family to caring for the members and families who made up communities. Caring relationships were established with the destitute, poor, women, children, and immigrants who lacked proper medical attention.

Past period 2
Depression of the 1930's

Description of Historical time period
Economic depression experienced by American's during the 1930's impacted community health nursing. During this time unemployment soared, increasing poverty and illness. Many professional private duty nurses whom worked in their patient homes found themselves unemployed simply because families could not afford their services.

Nursing role in community
Nursing roles in the community focused on health and prevention of illness and the spread of communicable disease associated with malnutrition, poverty, and poor living conditions. Public health nurses promoted health and wellness for mothers and their children, administered immunizations, and performed screenings of prenatal women for syphilis. According to Mississippi State Department of Health, nurses traveled to homes within the community to stress the importance of good health habits and having a cow, a garden, screened homes, baby beds, and sanitary privies.Malnutrition and pellagra was prevalent during the Depression. Economic hardships cause by unemployment made healthy, nutritious diets unattainable for many families.

Major health issues
Communicable diseases such as syphilis, tuberculosis, and malaria were considered a major health concern due to the lack of disease prevention knowledge within the community; knowledge required to reduce the spread of communicable disease

Partnerships used
FERA supported nurse employment through visiting nurse agencies...
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