By Marc William Fernandes
Computer And Network Fundamentals UG11
Part B:Research Questions4
Part C: Computer Build9
This coursework is aimed to show 3 parts in the field of Computer and Network Fundamentals: Part A- Number Systems, Part B-Working of computer systems and software and Part C-Computer build based on certain requirements.
Question number| Answers|
11.| 9 bytes|
13.| SCSI Hardware MP|
Part B:Research Question
B1. Explain the purpose of MPEG encoding. Give an example of it’s implementation and why it is used in this case. Ans: MPEG, short for Moving Picture Experts Group was established in the year 1988 by a group of experts formed by the ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) and the IEC (International Electrochemical Commission) to set a standard for audio and video compression and transmission.MPEG has many types such as MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 etc, of which MPEG-4 is the most widely used encoding standard.
The purpose of MPEG encoding is to make audio and video files easy for compression and transmission. Video images take up a lot of memory. For a full motion video to appear without any disturbance images should appear at a minimum rate of 25 frames per second. This is achieved by compression the data into small bits which can be easily transmitted and then decompressed. The advantage of MPEG encoding is that it has a high data compression rate. This is because it only stores the changes that take place in consecutive frames instead of the whole frame. An example of the implementation of MPEG is in digital television signals. DVDs and receivers are also designed to follow the MPEG standard. Since TV quality digital video has a vast bandwidth, it is very important for the video to be compressed and then transmitted. This is achieved by using MPEG-4 which is a set of standards for compression of motion picture information. Quicktime player and RealMedia are some standard video containers that support MPEG encoding. Since MPEG-4 provides good compression rates with it’s standard algorithms, it has become the most widely used MPEG format in the world.
B2. Explain the purpose and function of an assembler. Given atleast one specific example of such software. Ans: An assembler is a utility program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that only the computer processor understands and uses to perform basic operations.This conversion process is known as assembly. The assembler converts an assembly language program(which is a low level language) into object files which contain instructions and information needed to place information properly in memory.
In the early days when there were no assemblers, programmers actually wrote programs in machine code. But, to speed up the programming process, assembler languages were introduced.
Every computer has a specified set of instructions that corresponds to the operation that the computer can execute. It is stored in a small set of data holding places in the processor called the register. But, the register must be large enough to hold an instruction. For example, for a 64 bit instruction, the register must be 64 bits long. Then, the programmers can write a program in a sequence of the assembly languages. This is known as source code. The assembler takes each instruction and converts it into the corresponding bit pattern. The output obtained is called the object code and the...