|The Mayan Number System | |The Mayan number system dates back to the fourth century and was approximately 1,000 years more advanced than the Europeans of that | |time. This system is unique to our current decimal system, which has a base 10, in that the Mayan's used a vigesimal system, which | |had a base 20. This system is believed to have been used because, since the Mayan's lived in such a warm climate and there was rarely| |a need to wear shoes, 20 was the total number of fingers and toes, thus making the system workable. Therefore two important markers | |in this system are 20, which relates to the fingers and toes, and five, which relates to the number of digits on one hand or foot. | |The Mayan system used a combination of two symbols. A dot (.) was used to represent the units (one through four) and a dash (-) was | |used to represent five. It is thought that the Mayan's may have used an abacus because of the use of their symbols and, therefore, | |there may be a connection between the Japanese and certain American tribes (Ortenzi, 1964). The Mayan's wrote their numbers | |vertically as opposed to horizontally with the lowest denomination on the bottom. Their system was set up so that the first five | |place values were based on the multiples of 20. They were 1 (200), 20 (201), 400 (202), 8,000 (203), and 160,000 (204). In the Arabic| |form we use the place values of 1, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000. For example, the number 241,083 would be figured out and written as | |follows: | |Mayan | |Numbers | |Place Value | |Decimal Value | | | |[pic] | |1 times 160,000 | |= 160,000 | | | |[pic] | |10 times 8,000 | |= 80,000 | | | |[pic] | |2 times 400 | |= 800 | |...

...Pi has always been an interesting concept to me. A number that is infinitely being calculated seems almost unbelievable. This number has perplexed many for years and years, yet it is such an essential part of many peoples lives. It has become such a popular phenomenon that there is even a day named after it, March 14th (3/14) of every year! It is used to find the area or perimeter of circles, and used in our every day lives. Pi is used in things such as engineering and physics, to the ripples created when a drop of water falls into a puddle, Pi is everywhere. While researching this topic I have found that Pi certainly stretches back to a period long ago. The history of Pi was much more extensive than I originally imagined. I also learned that searching for more numbers in Pi was a major concern for mathematicians in which they put much effort into finding these lost numbers. The use for Pi was also significantly larger than I originally anticipated. I was under the impression that it was used for strictly mathematicians which is entirely not true. This is why Pi is so interesting.
The history of Pi dates back to a much later period than I thought. Ancient Egypt and Babylon are one of the first places that Pi was first founded. When discovered it showed that these ancient Pi values were within one percent of it's actual value, which is incredible considering the resources that weren't available yet like we have...

...should be named as A3Q2.c, etc. Make a folder, name it as (For e.g. 11K-2122_Sec(A)), place the source files for all the problems in this folder. The compressed folder should be submitted to slate. The program should be properly commented. Add your name and roll number at the beginning of each program, in comments. Plagiarism: Any sort of plagiarism is not allowed. If found plagiarized it will be graded 0 marks. __________________________________________________________________________________________
Q.1: Write a program that lets the user perform arithmetic operations on two numbers (integers). Your
program must be menu driven, allowing the user to select the operation (+, -, *, or /) and input the numbers. Furthermore, your program must consist of following functions: A) Function showChoice: This function shows the options to the user and explains how to enter data. B) Function add: This function accepts two numbers (integers) as arguments and returns sum. C) Function subtract: This function accepts two numbers (integers) as arguments and returns their difference. D) Function multiply: This function accepts two numbers (integers) as arguments and returns product. E) Function divide: This function accepts two numbers (integers) as arguments and returns quotient (double).
Q2: Write a program to take a depth (in kilometers) inside the earth as input data; compute and...

...consistent sales, or dependable communication between the two divisions so the inventory department will know how much the sales department needs. In order for this system to function smoothly, the sales department must have a clear idea of how long it takes the inventory department to acquire more product, through production or ordering, and must plan its orders accordingly.
Consequences of an Imbalanced Sales to Inventory Ratio
If your company has more inventory on hand than it can sell in a reasonable time frame, then it must expend resources to store and handle this backlog of product. In addition, buying too much inventory ties up capital that you could be using for day to day operations. If your company has insufficient inventory on hand to meet customer demand, you run the risk of losing customers by being unable to provide for them.
Background/Problems
When materials are received or created in the factory they are packaged in some form of stock-keeping-units (SKUs, Packs, Handling Units) for ease of transport. Each pack is given a unique code (Pack number) for ease of identification. Packs can be coded in various ways e.g. as part of a batch; or unique pack numbers for each pallet, box, tote, container, stillage; or a unique serial number for each part.
When inventory is created or received at goods in, pack numbers have to be generated and quantities of units packed recorded. Typically...

...Mathematics Chapter 1: NumberSystems Chapter Notes
Key Concepts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Numbers 1, 2, 3……., which are used for counting are called Natural numbers and are denoted by N. 0 when included with the natural numbers form a new set of numbers called Whole number denoted by W -1,-2,-3……………..- are the negative of natural numbers. The negative of natural numbers, 0 and the natural number together constitutes integers denoted by Z. The numbers which can be represented in the form of p/q where q 0 and p and q are integers are called Rational numbers. Rational numbers are denoted by Q. If p and q are coprime then the rational number is in its simplest form. Irrational numbers are the numbers which are non-terminating and non-repeating. Rational and irrational numbers together constitute Real numbers and it is denoted by R. Equivalent rational numbers (or fractions) have same (equal) values when written in the simplest form. Terminating fractions are the fractions which leaves remainder 0 on division. Recurring fractions are the fractions which never leave a remainder 0 on division. There are infinitely many rational numbers between any two rational numbers. If Prime factors of the...

...Historical Survey of NumberSystems
Nikolai Weibull
1. Introduction
In a narrow, yet highly unspecific, sense, a numbersystem is a way in which humans represent numbers. We have limited our discussion already, for it is merely humans among all known species who have the ability to count and form numbers which we later can perform calculations upon. Many—often very different—numbersystems have been employed by many—again, very different—cultures and civilizations throughout the ages, and there still exists a wide variety of them even today, in our comparatively global society. In a much more broad sense, a numbersystem is a set of the many ways humans reason about numbers and this is the definition we will use for our discussion in this paper. But what do we mean by this above definition? Well, let us discuss the ways in which we, as humans, reason about numbers. We reason about numbers by talking about them, so we need a way to represent numbers in speech. We reason about numbers by writing about them, so we need a way to represent numbers in writing/text; this representation is known as a notation. Furthermore, when reasoning about numbers, we need some sort of number base, or radix, which is the fundamental...

...he number theory or numbersystems happens to be the back bone for CAT preparation. Numbersystems not only form the basis of most calculations and other systems in mathematics, but also it forms a major percentage of the CAT quantitative section. The reason for that is the ability of examiner to formulate tough conceptual questions and puzzles from this section. In numbersystems there are hundreds of concepts and variations, along with various logics attached to them, which makes this seemingly easy looking topic most complex in preparation for the CAT examination. The students while going through these topics should be careful in capturing the concept correctly, as it’s not the speed but the concept that will solve the question here. The correct understanding of concept is the only way to solve complex questions based on this section.
Real numbers: The numbers that can represent physical quantities in a complete manner. All real numbers can be measured and can be represented on a number line. They are of two types:
Rational numbers: A number that can be represented in the form p/q where p and q are integers and q is not zero. Example: 2/3, 1/10, 8/3 etc. They can be finite decimal numbers, whole numbers, integers, fractions.
Irrational...

...THE REAL NUMBERSYSTEM
The real numbersystem evolved over time by expanding the notion of what we mean by the word “number.” At first, “number” meant something you could count, like how many sheep a farmer owns. These are called the natural numbers, or sometimes the counting numbers.
Natural Numbers
or “Counting Numbers”
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .
* The use of three dots at the end of the list is a common mathematical notation to indicate that the list keeps going forever.
At some point, the idea of “zero” came to be considered as a number. If the farmer does not have any sheep, then the number of sheep that the farmer owns is zero. We call the set of natural numbers plus the number zero the whole numbers.
Whole Numbers
Natural Numbers together with “zero”
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .
About the Number ZeroWhat is zero? Is it a number? How can the number of nothing be a number? Is zero nothing, or is it something?Well, before this starts to sound like a Zen koan, let’s look at how we use the numeral “0.” Arab and Indian scholars were the first to use zero to develop the place-value numbersystem that we use today. When we write a number,...

...Semester, 2009
History of Philosophy
PLTL 1111 AA
THE DIVINITY OF NUMBER:
The Importance of Number in the Philosophy of Pythagoras
by
Br. Paul Phuoc Trong Chu, SDB
Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, were profoundly fascinated with numbers. In this paper, I will show that the heart of Pythagoras’ philosophy centers on numbers. As true to the spirit of Pythagoras, I will demonstrate this in seven ways. One, the principle of reality is mathematics and its essence is numbers. Two, odd and even numbers signify the finite and infinite. Three, perfect numbers correspond with virtues. Four, the generation of numbers leads to an understanding of the One, the Divinity. Five, the tetractys is important for understanding reality. Six, the ratio of numbers in the tetractys governs musical harmony. Seven, the laws of harmony explain workings of the material world.
The Pythagoreans “believed that [the principles of mathematics] are the principles of all things that are”. Further, “number is the first of these principles”.[1] “’The numerals of Pythagoras,’ says Porphyry, who lived about 300 A. D., ‘were hieroglyphic symbols, by means whereof he explained all ideas concerning the nature of things…’”[2] In modern time, we can see clearly the application of mathematical principles in our daily lives. For...