Pregnancy, the state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be indicated by positive results on an over-the-counter urine test, and confirmed through a blood test, ultrasound, detection of fetal heartbeat, or an X-ray. Pregnancy lasts for about nine months, measured from the date of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP). It is conventionally divided into three trimesters, each roughly three months long.
When gestation has completed, it goes through a process called delivery, where the developed fetus is expelled from the mother’s womb. There are two options of delivery: Cesarean section and NSVD or normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. A cesarean section is a surgical incision through the mother’s abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more fetuses. NSVD or normal spontaneous vaginal delivery is the delivery of the baby through vaginal route. It can also be called NSD or normal spontaneous delivery, or SVD or spontaneous vaginal delivery, where the mother delivers the baby with effort and force exertion.
Normal labor is defined as the gradual subjugation and dilatation of the uterine cervix as a result of rhythmic uterine contractions leading to the expulsion of the products of conception: the delivery of the fetus, membranes, umbilical cord, and placenta. Laboring cannot that be easy; thereby implicating that there are processes and stages to be undertaken to achieve spontaneous delivery. Through which, Obstetrics have divided labor into four (4) stages thereby explaining this continuous process.
STAGE 1: It is usually the longest part of labor. It begins with regular uterine contractions and ends with complete cervical dilatation at 10 centimeters. This stage is broken down into three (3) phases: the Early phase, where the contractions are usually very light and maybe approximately 20 minutes or more apart from the beginning, gradually becoming closer, possibly up to five minutes apart; the Active phase, where contractions are generally four or five times apart, and may last up to 60 seconds long. Cervix dilates with 4-7 cm and initiates a more rapid dilatation. It is known that to get through active labor, mobility and relaxations are done to increase contractions; and the Transition phase, where it is definitely known as the shortest phase but the hardest, contractions maybe two or three times apart, lasting up to a minute and a half, about approximately 8-10 cm of cervical dilatation. Some women will shake and may vomit during this stage, and this is regarded as normal. Most of the time, women would find a comfortable position to acquire complete dilatation.
STAGE II: This stage lasts for three or more hours. However, the length of this stage depends upon the mother’s position (e.g.; upright position yields faster delivery). Once the cervix has completely dilated, the second stage had begun. This stage ends with the expulsion of the fetus.
STAGE III: This stage focuses on the expulsion of the placenta from the mother. Placenta exclusion is much more easier than the delivery of the baby because it includes no bones, and this is during this stage that the baby is placed on top of the mother’s womb.
STAGE IV: No more expulsions of conception products for this stage as this is generally accepted as POST PARTUM juncture. This phase is from the placental delivery to full recovery of the mother.
Labor and delivery of the fetus entails physiological effects both on the mother and the fetus. In the cardiovascular system, the mother’s cardiac output increases because of the increase in the needed amount of blood in the uterine area. Blood pressure may also rise due to the effort exerted by the mother in order expel the fetus. There could also be a development of leukocytes or a sharp increase in the number of circulating white blood cells possibly as a...