Nsci Midterm

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW
Geocentric:earth centered-aristotle- greeks
Heliocentric-sun centered-copernicus
Retrogade motion - Apparent backwards motion of planets
Parallax-earth goes around the sun,stars(background). Appears to shift. Cant be measured, so far away. Kepler’s Law (1&3)- Ist orbit are ellipses , 3rd mass of the star, solar masses/ distance from the star. The idealized scientific methodBased on proposing and testing hypothensis Hypothesis -educated guess (Book and Paper demo)

Hallmarks of science: #1Modern science seeks explanations for observed phenomena that rely solely on natural causes. ( a scientific model cannot include divine intervention). Hallmarks of science: #2Science progresses through the creation and testing of models of nature that explain the observations as simply as possible. *Occam’s RazorWhen there is more than one possible explanation choose the “’simplest”. *Hallmarks of science: #3A scientific model must make testable predictions about natural phenomena that would force us to revise or abandon the model if the predictions do not agree with observations. Think out loud science and controlScience seeks to predict natural phenomena. In principle, things that can be predicted can be controlled Technology Science in a NutshellScience is figuring out how things work. What is a scientific theory?-The word theory has a different meaning in science than in everyday life.-In science, a theory is NOT the same as a hypothesis;rather: A scientific theory

-Must explain a wide variety of observations with a few simple principles, AND -Must be supported by a large, compelling body of evidence.
-Must NOT have failed any crucial test of its variety.
Chapter 3 The Universal Context Review
Earth- home sweet hom
SOLAR SYSTEM- SUN & THINGS ORBITING THE SUN
Galaxy- Large group of stars, sun is the mily way galaxy, gravitationally bound Cluster group- groups of galaxies
Super cluster- group of clusters
Observable Universe- what we can see
Universe- everything
Solar system-sun- in milky way galaxy like we are-planets
terrestrial- rocky
mercury, venus, earth, mars
Jovian- gas giant
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
-Dwarf planet- pluto
-Moons, asteroids,comets(Kuiper belt, oort cloud)
Formation of the solar system- form-spin-kuiper belt(gases centered the sun, gas and dust/ice around it > from disk they form, no momentum then flats out) Nearest star- proxima century
Nearest galaxy- Andromeda

Lessons from Astronomy
-The universe is vast and old
-The elements of life are widespread
-The same physical laws are true throughout the Universe
Earth Sun
---------------------150,000,000 Km = 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) Pluto Sun
----------------------5,900,000,000 Km= 39 AU
Solar System
In order of increasing distance from the sun
-Mercury
-Venus
-Earth
-Mars
-Jupiter (Largest Planet)
-Saturn
-Uranus
-Neptune
-Pluto (dwarf planet)

Proxima
Centauri Sun
----------------------40,000,000,000,000 Km= 4.2 Light Years (ly) / 250,000 AU Scientific Notation
The zeros are getting ridiculous 40,000,000,000,000 m= 4x10^13 km (4 with 10^18 Km
------------------------------------100,000 ly Milky Way Galaxy 2x10^19 km
--------------------------------------
2,5000,000 ly
Andromeda GalaxyMilky way Galaxy
Scale of the Universe
In order of increasing size
-Earth
-Sun-Solar system
-Distance to nearest stars
-Galaxy ~100 Billion stars
-Local cluster (of galaxies)
-Local Super Clusters (of galaxy clusters)
-Universe (~100 billion galaxies)
Length Units
-Astronomical Unit (AU)
-Average distance between the Earth and the Sun
1AU = 150,000,000 KM
-Light Year (ly)
-Distance light travels in one year
1 ly = 63,000 AU =9.5X10^12 KM
-Speed of Lights = 300,000 km/s

How can we know what the Universe was like in the past?

Destination Light travel time
Moon1 second
Sun8...
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