Breathe In, Breathe Out
100-Name 4 different types of respiratory surfaces for organisms with examples Skin-frogs Gills-Fish (also skin) Tracheae-Insects (tracheal tubes directly feed body tissues across cell membranes, separate from circulatory system) Lungs-Humans (other mammals)-exchange of gases 200-1, Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because A) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume. B) pressure in the alveoli increases. C) gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. D) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs. E) a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes. 2. Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs? A) The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases. B) The residual volume of the lungs decreases. C) The diaphragm contracts. D) The epiglottis closes. E) The rib cage expands. 3. A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of A) 1,450 mL. D) 5,000 mL. B) 4,000 mL. E) 5,450 mL. C) 4,450 mL. 300-Organisms in water use countercurrent exchange for gas diffusion. A. How does this work? Blood flows in the opposite direction to water passing over the gills, blood is always less saturated with O2 than the water it meets (remember higher partial pressure to lower partial pressure!). Gills have several outfoldings to increase surface area and exchange B. Why do organisms living in water need to do this? The water medium has inherently lower concentrations of oxygen and higher viscosity of air so countercurrent exchange helps to facilitate diffusion 400-1. The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate? A) nitric acid D) carbon dioxide B) nitrogen E) carbon monoxide C) oxygen 2. Blood carbon dioxide levels determine the pH of other body fluids as well as blood, including the pH of cerebrospinal fluid. How does this enable the organism to control breathing? A) The brain directly measures and monitors carbon dioxide and causes breathing changes accordingly. B) The medulla, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing. C) The brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide. D) Stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla to speed up or slow breathing. E) The medulla is able to control the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood.
BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th
3. The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in A) the partial pressure of oxygen. D) temperature. B) the partial pressure of carbon monoxide. E) pH. C) hemoglobin concentration. 500-How are gas exchange and circulation coordinated in the human lungs? Blood arrives in the lungs has low partial pressure of O2 and a high partial pressure of CO2 relative to air in the alveoli -In alveoli-O2 diffuses into the blood and CO2 diffuses into the air -In tissue capillaries, O2 diffuses into interstitial fluids and CO2 diffuses into the blood
Birds do it, bees do it, …
100-Evidence that parthenogenic whiptail lizards are derived from sexually reproducing ancestors includes A) the requirement for male-like behaviors in some females before their partners will ovulate. B) the development and then regression of testes prior to sexual maturation. C) the observation that all of the offspring are haploid. D) dependence on favorable weather conditions for ovulation to occur. E) the persistence of a vestigial penis among some of the females. 200-Name two reasons for and two reasons against asexual reproduction. For: -do not waste energy finding a mate -rapid reproduction & colonization in favorable habitats -ensures gene pool is passed to next...