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Chapter 8: Community Ecology

1. ______ Which of the following characteristics does an ecologist not use to describe a biological community? a. species diversity
b. physical appearance
c. elevation
d. niche structure

2. ______ Which of the following factors most affects terrestrial species diversity? e. latitude
f. longitude
g. elevation
h. depth

3. ______ According to the theory of island biogeography, a ______ will have the greatest number of species. i. small island, distant from the mainland
j. large island, close to the mainland
k. small island, close to the mainland
l. large island, distant from the mainland

4. ______ Without the presence of sea otters, sea urchins would otherwise overgraze kelp beds, dramatically changing the marine community of which the urchins and otters are a part. For this reason, sea otters are considered m. generalist species.

n. keystone species.
o. indicator species.
p. alien species.

5. ______ Trout are an excellent ______ because they are very sensitive to water quality. q. keystone species
r. generalist species
s. indicator species
t. alien species

6. ______ Which of the following are indicator species of particular current interest to biologists? u. amphibians
v. insects
w. birds
x. reptiles

7. ______ Skimmers, flamingos, diving duck, and heron can coexist in a coastal wetland as a result of y. exploitation competition.
z. symbiosis.
{. interference competition.
|. resource-partitioning.

8. ______ Parasitism occurs when
}. both of these choices.
~. one species feeds on part of another organism.
. the parasite benefits and the host is harmed.
. neither of these choices.

9. ______ Which of the following represents a mutualistic species interaction? . ferns growing on a tree branch
. fleas on a dog
. bees pollinating flowers
. lions eating a dead gazelle

10. ______ Which of the following is a pioneer species?
. redwood tree
. oak tree
. holly shrub
. lichen

11. ______ As succession proceeds, ______ increases and ______ decreases. . species diversity, net primary productivity
. net primary productivity, stratification
. plant growth rate, net primary productivity
. stratification, species diversity

12. ______ Facilitation occurs when
. species are unaffected by new arrivals.
. early species inhibit the growth of other species.
. one species makes an area suitable for species with different niche requirements. . an ecosystem changes because of environmental conditions.

13. ______ The ability of a living system to bounce back after a disturbance that is not too drastic is called . primary succession.
. inertia.
. constancy.
. resilience.

14. ______ Which of the following is not an example of an aspect of stability in living systems? . extinction
. inertia
. constancy
. resilience

15. ______ A grassland has
. low resilience.
. low inertia.
. high species diversity.
. all of the choices.

Chapter 9: Population Ecology

1. ______ Biotic potential and ______ determine ______.
a. environmental resistance; intrinsic rate of increase b. intrinsic rate of increase; carrying capacity
c. carrying capacity; environmental resistance
d. environmental resistance; carrying capacity

2. ______ A J-shaped curve is characteristic of
e. zero population growth.
f. logistic growth.
g. exponential growth.
h. a population that has overshot its carrying capacity.

3. ______ With ______ the growth rate decreases, as the population gets larger. i....
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