Notes on Colonialism and Imperialism

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Chapter 33 Notes
* Foundations of empire
* Motives of imperialism
* Modern imperialism
* Refers to domination of industrialized countries over subject lands * Domination achieved through trade, investment, and business activities * Two types of modern colonialism
* Colonies ruled and populated by migrants
* Colonies controlled by imperial powers without significant settlement * Economic motives of imperialism
* European merchants and entrepreneurs made personal fortunes * Overseas expansion for raw materials: rubber, tin, copper, petroleum * Colonies were potential markets for industrial products * Political motives

* Strategic purpose: harbors and supply stations for industrial nations * Overseas expansion used to defuse internal tensions
* Cultural justifications of imperialism
* Christian missionaries sought converts in Africa and Asia * "Civilizing mission" or "white man's burden" was a justification for expansion * Tools of empire
* Transportation technologies supported imperialism
* Steam-powered gunboats reached inland waters of Africa and Asia * Railroads organized local economies to serve imperial power * Western military technologies increasingly powerful
* Firearms: from muskets to rifles to machines guns
* In Battle of Omdurman 1898, British troops killed eleven thousand Sudanese in five hours * Communication technologies linked imperial lands with colonies * Oceangoing steamships cut travel time from Britain to India from years to weeks * Telegraph invented in 1830s, global reach by 1900

* European imperialism
* The British empire in India
* Company rule under the English East India Company
* EIC took advantage of Mughal decline in India, began conquest of India in 1750s * Built trading cities and forts at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay * Ruled domains with small British force and Indian troops called sepoys * Sepoy mutiny, 1857: attacks on British civilians led to swift British reprisals * British imperial rule replaced the EIC, 1858

* British viceroy and high-level British civil service ruled India * British officials appointed a viceroy and formulated all domestic and foreign policy * Indians held low-level bureaucratic positions

* Economic restructuring of India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
* Introduction of commercial crops: tea in Ceylon, also coffee and opium * Built railroads and telegraph lines, new canals, harbors, and irrigation methods * British rule did not interfere with Indian culture or Hindu religion * Established English-style schools for Indian elites

* Outlawed Indian customs considered offensive, such as the sati * Imperialism in central Asia and southeast Asia
* "The Great Game" refers to competition between Britain and Russia in central Asia * By 1860s Russian expansion reached northern frontiers of British India * Russian and British explorers mapped, scouted, but never colonized Afghanistan * Russian dominance of central Asia lasted until 1991

* Dutch East India Company held tight control of Indonesia (Dutch East India) * British colonies in southeast Asia
* Established colonial authority in Burma, 1880s
* Port of Singapore founded 1824; was base for conquest of Malaya, 1870s * French Indochina created, 1859-1893
* Consisted of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos--former tribute states of Qing dynasty * French encouraged conversion to Christianity, established western-style schools * Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) left in place as buffer between Burma and Indochina * The scramble for Africa

* Between 1875 and 1900, European powers seized almost the entire continent * Early explorers charted the waters, gathered information on resources * Missionaries like David Livingstone set up mission posts * Henry Stanley sent by Leopold II of Belgium to create colony in Congo, 1870s * To protect their...
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