Appeasement characterises British Foreign Policy for all 20th Century e.g. modifying of treaty of Versailles.
Appeasement now associated with weakness (dirty word) but in 1900s was seen as honourable.
CATO - 'guilty men' - published by left wing journalists analysed why appeasement failed, the guilty men were seen as moral cowards… people supported this until the opening of the National Archives.
WHO you are trying to appease is the problem.
Doomed to fail from the start? Trying to appease the unappeasable?
Slide 4 – Anglo – German
Act of revenge on part of previous warfare against Ethiopia Inferiority complex often shown by Italy as it had no Empire League put economic sanctions but did not shut the Suez Canal- showing they did not want to provoke Italy and Britain wants Italy as Ally against Hitler
Therefore there is a need for Appeasement, Britain and France were put to shame, angered Mussolini and therefore joins Hitler in taking over Austria. Diplomatic allegiance that threatens Britain's security due to disarmament. (Japan, Italy and Germany)
Collective security completely discredited - League plays no role at all in any of succeeding crises - everyone for themselves.
Slide 5 - Re- Occupation of Rhineland
Hitler sees world is distracted and takes the opportunity and invades Rhineland and re arms it. Gamble by Hitler - Army was not sent in just a few infantry.
Britain wants him to get away with it.
Public opinion - Pacifist against war v no interest in foreign affairs This was last chance to stop Hitler.
Slide 6 – Spanish Civil War
Representative of ideological struggle in Europe as whole: Communists and socialists vs. Fascists and right wing.
Britain and France Appease AGAIN!!!!!
EST OF NON - INTERVENTION COMMITTEE BUT DOES NOTHING
BRITAIN BEGINS TO FEAR AERIAL BOMBARDMENT
Slide 7 – Guernica
STRIKE FEAR INTO BRITONS AND BEGIN TO RE - ARM TO SECURE SAFETY OF LONDON (PUBLIC OPINION AND POLITICAL CIRCLES)
STANLEY BALDWIN - NO DEFENCE AGAINST THE BOMBER.
REFER TO GUERNICA IN STATISTICAL ANALYSIS.
EXPECTED DEATHS CAUSED EVEN MORE PANIC
Slide 8 – The Anschluss
HITLER BREACHES VERSAILLE AGAIN
FELT THAT THERE WAS LITTLE BRITAIN AND FRANCE COULD DO, SO APPEASED AGAIN!!!
Slide 10- Czechoslovakia
Wanted to take back land that was originally German
But part of little entente, so makes a seperatist movement e.g. propaganda against each other
Slide 13 – Appeasement
If you don't negotiate with Hitler? What do you do?
League of Nations a 'busted flush'
Any collective security via Empire? Empire a source of weakness, give commitments and responsibilities but not necessarily the strength to deal with those responsibility? Possibility of an alliance system against Germany? - potential of a front against Hitler, Poland hates Russia and Vice Versa and czechs, not easy to form.
Likliehood of provoking a war becomes increasingly more apparent
Slide 14 – Defence Weaknesses
Red. Britain's defences
1934 - penny drops, DRC formed because thought that world is no longer a peaceful place. Specifically look at defence requirements - 15yrs of cuts left britain with very small army, air force not good, navy only thing that was useful. Not useful on mainland Europe.
Slide 15 – Defence Weaknesses cont.
Fear of German bombing was rife, need a strong air force. Even though not consistent but still at heart.
1938 rearmament really begins to take place
RAF slower than bombers they needed to intercept. Needed a modern defensive. 1935 - 1939 Britain manages to create a modern air defence system, RAF more effective now.
Makes Appeasement seem logical
Slide 16 – Economic weakness
Economic Consequences of going into war, just emerging out of Great depression don't want involvement in war for 2nd time in 20 yrs.
Munitions are now very expensive, cost of rearmament begins to bite 40% of total...