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History 2020 Part One: The Rise of Industrial America (1865-1908)

1. The Struggle over Reconstruction

I. Presidential Reconstruction

Five political groups fought for control:
a.Radical Republicans
i.Minority with in own party
ii.Stevenes OH
iii.Sumtner (beat up in congress)
iv.Religious/ideological drive (total equal for all blacks/full citizenship) a.Moderate Republicans
i.Wanted to free slaves BUT
ii.Reconstruct the south and stabilize economy
iii.Willing to sacrifice total citizenship for blacks
b.Northern Democrats
i.Opposed full citizenship for blacks
ii.Sympathized with southern Dems
iii.Implemented some black codes
1.OH black tax
c.Ex-Confederates
i.Southern Dems
ii.Re-establish their power
iii.Maintain white supremacy
d.Freedmen
i.Ex-slaves
ii.Weakest of the 5
iii.Allied with radical GOP for military protection

1. Lincoln’s Program

-Reconciliation, not Revenge
i.Originally held the lead
ii.“If I could with this war by freeing all the slaves or none I would….” iii.More about saving the Union
iv.His attitude changed
1.Free slaves surprised everyone because they did not turn on whites 2.Former slaves made good soldiers
a.Almost 1/3 of union army
-Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen’s Bureau) i.Staffed mostly by army officers
ii.Negotiated labor contracts for the illiterate blacks
iii.Provides homes/schools/churches
iv.Protests ex- slaves from whites trying to force back to fields (north view) iii.v.In south (TN) spent more time helping poor whites
-10% Plan
i.Can let a state be readmitted to the union if ONLY 10 percent of the whites (1/10) lay down arms and swear and oath of allegiance -Appalled the radical republicans since
i.Would not help because confederates would still be in power ii.Did not punish the confederates
iii.Could do nothing to stop because Lincoln too popular iv.Changes because 5 days after Lee surrenders Lincoln shot 1.War had a great toll on him
2.Booth was from Maryland
a.Lincoln declared martial law on Baltimore
i.Arrested all of the government
ii.Maryland and John Booth viewed Lincoln as tyrant.
b.Booth acted alone without confederates
i.South gets blamed for his death
ii.Radicals take power to punish the South

2. Johnson’s Program
a.Who?
i.Feisty VP from TN
1.Only VP for a month
ii.Right man for justice on the south
1.Poorest man up to time to become POTUS
2.Self taught working class
3.Alderman>state legislature> 2yrs as gov TN> federal congress b.Views
i.Won many elections but was bitter because he was never considered an elite ii.So he sides with the north because he hates plantation owners 1.Exiled to north by confederates
2.Toured nation giving fiery speeches against plantation owners (slaveorcacy) 3.Demands they pay for disunion
iii.Legend of “40 acres & a mule”
1. AJ and several union generals took land from slave owners and broke it up to the slaves 3.Lincoln stopped this
4.He talked about the distribution as a PVT citizens but never officially 5.AJ referred to him self as modern Moses for freedman
v.AJ in Power
1.Radicals looked forward to the reign of AJ
a.Shocks them by befriending ex confederates
b.Continues the soft reconstruction
2.All but biggest and worst confederates forgiven if they take iron clad oath 3.Biggest would be pardoned if they make a direct appeal to AJ a.Personal revenge (satisfaction) getting the planation owners to bow to him b.Every single one of them pardoned

i.WHY the change?
1.Dem before the war (only to advance in TN)
a.Only became a Republican because Lincoln asked him on the ticket 2.He did not agree with radical Boston GOP
a.Starts to work with the Dems because he wanted reelection and could not get that with the republicans b.Changes saying if blacks want more freedom then MOVE!
c.State of union declares "I believe they [blacks] have less capacity for...
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