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History 2020 Part One: The Rise of Industrial America (1865-1908)

1. The Struggle over Reconstruction

I. Presidential Reconstruction

Five political groups fought for control:
a.Radical Republicans
i.Minority with in own party
ii.Stevenes OH
iii.Sumtner (beat up in congress)
iv.Religious/ideological drive (total equal for all blacks/full citizenship) a.Moderate Republicans
i.Wanted to free slaves BUT
ii.Reconstruct the south and stabilize economy
iii.Willing to sacrifice total citizenship for blacks
b.Northern Democrats
i.Opposed full citizenship for blacks
ii.Sympathized with southern Dems
iii.Implemented some black codes
1.OH black tax
i.Southern Dems
ii.Re-establish their power
iii.Maintain white supremacy
ii.Weakest of the 5
iii.Allied with radical GOP for military protection

1. Lincoln’s Program

-Reconciliation, not Revenge
i.Originally held the lead
ii.“If I could with this war by freeing all the slaves or none I would….” iii.More about saving the Union
iv.His attitude changed
1.Free slaves surprised everyone because they did not turn on whites 2.Former slaves made good soldiers
a.Almost 1/3 of union army
-Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen’s Bureau) i.Staffed mostly by army officers
ii.Negotiated labor contracts for the illiterate blacks
iii.Provides homes/schools/churches
iv.Protests ex- slaves from whites trying to force back to fields (north view) iii.v.In south (TN) spent more time helping poor whites
-10% Plan
i.Can let a state be readmitted to the union if ONLY 10 percent of the whites (1/10) lay down arms and swear and oath of allegiance -Appalled the radical republicans since
i.Would not help because confederates would still be in power ii.Did not punish the confederates
iii.Could do nothing to stop because Lincoln too popular iv.Changes because 5 days after Lee surrenders Lincoln...
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