We have macro level theories that are sociological and we have micro level theories. Macro level theories
Micro level theories
– attempt to explain crime rates across groups or across areas, explaining rates of behavior across different groups – attempt to explain or understand why one individual is more likely to be criminal than another criminal, the focus is on individuals rather than a group i.e. groups – ask questions like “why do men commit crime at a higher rate than women?” “Why do racial minorities commit crime at a higher rate than whites?
Another dimension by which to categorize or classify sociological theories has to do with the formation of law and the assumptions regarding the formation of law within these theories. Theories can be conflict-based or consensus-based in terms of their assumptions regarding how law is formulated. Consensus-based theories - make assumptions that the law is collectively determined by people in agreement (the idea that law is something that everyone agrees upon is fundamental in these theories) The fact that we agree as a community or as a collective that certain things should be considered criminal and others should not is a key assumption of consensus based theories of crime. Some examples of consensus-based theories include social disorganization theory, social learning theory and social control theory Conflict-based theories - Assumes there can be no consensus about law. Law is not advanced by communal interest and collective conscience. Instead law is based on conflict among different groups in society; all pushing to have their interest advanced Some examples of conflict-based theories are conflict theory and labeling theory. Social disorganization theory
Social conflict theory
Social disorganization theory is an excellent example of consensus-based theory.
Social conflict theory is an example of a conflict-based perspective. Social Disorganization Theory is interested in why some neighborhoods within...
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