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AP US Notes

Chapter 1.

Civilizations of America-prmarily small nomadic bands. Primitive agriculture. Hunting fishing.

Incas-powerful empire of 6 million. Complex political system very sophisticated culture. Located in south and central America. Never had any system of writing or paper.

Aztec-very advanced, located in lower and middle Mexico.

Civilizations of the North. Never one large civilization but lots of little ones. Many different tribes. Includes Eskimos, tribes of pacific northwest, far west.
Some tribes were based on fishing.

Agriculture of northeast was slash and burn technique.

Many of the tribes living east of the mississipi river lins by language roots. Largest language group was Algonquin tribes, which lived along atlantic seaboard from Canada to Virginia. The iroquis confederation in upstate new york was elaborately organized in mid 15th century. 5 nations- Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk. Also linked with cheerokees and Tuscaoras in Carolinas and Georgia. Third largest language group was the tibes of southernmost eastern seaboard. Chickasaws, chocataws, creeks and sminoles. Little or no alliacneces between tribes.

Europeans almost unaware of Americas. Europe was small and tightly closed and provincial. Two changes caused Europe to look to new lands; Black Death and its subsequent population rebound which lead to new growth in commerce and prosperity. Interest in new markets grew. Rise of commerce included rise of new governments. In western areas of Europe, pope and roman catholic church authority was weak and new monarchs rose to create nation states with armies and courts and tax systems.

Europe needed new faster route to asia. First was portugese, Prince Henery the navigator.

Christopher Columbus, of Genova Italy. Asked Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain monarchy for sponsership. Was given the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria and 90 men. Found the Bahamas and Cuba at first, believeing they were Japan and China.

America named after Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine merchant and member of the later Portugese expedititon. He wrote vivid descriptions of the new continent.

Due to Columbus’ explorations, Spain devoted itself to marine exploration. Vasco de Balboa was the first European to cross the isthmus of panama. Spain claimed the whole new world except for brazil, claimed by the portugese. The early Spanish colonists settled on the island of the carribian with little luck in riches. In 1518, Hernando Cortes led 600 men into Mexico and met the Aztecs and attacked. Their military attack had little result but they exposed the Aztecs to smallpox, killing many. Cortes was one of the most brutal conquistedors. He found silver and many Spaniards desenceded in search of silver. The Spanish almost exterminated the natives.

The history of the Spanish empire spanned 3 periods. The age of discovery, the age of conquistadors, and age of expansion and colonization. Spain created a religion based culture and made many catholic missions. These missions extended through the south and central Americas, mexico and into the south and southwest present united states. The Spanish fort made in 1565 at st. Augustine, florida, became the first European settlement in the present united states. It served as a military outpost, administrative center for missionaries and headquaters for unsuccessful campaigns against natives.

In 1598, don juan de onate traveld north from mexico with 500 men and claimed for spain the lands of the pueblo Indians. The migrants established a colony in what is now new mexico. They founded santa fe in 1609. Onate’s harsh treatment, demanding tributes for example, threatened the stability fo the colony and led to his removal as govoner in 1606. Many pueblo Indians converted to Christianity under the Spanish missionaries and entered trade agreements with spainish.

In 1680 the colony was nearly destroyed when pueblos rose in revolt. An Indian religious leader...
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