Nosocomial Infections

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Nosocomial Infections (NI) can arise from an inanimate object or substance, other patients, medical personnel, visitors, air, water, even the health care process itself. Also, the use of reusable equipment/supplies, invasive devices or techniques (catheters, valves, etc.). Patients in a hospital setting are also exposed to more drug resistant strains of microbes; as in this setting the microbes are selected at a higher rate than outside the hospital due to antibiotic usage in the hospital. NI usually involve the urinary tract, respiratory tract, surgical incision sites, and blood; again usually points of entry/exit from the human body.

Events, some listed above, in NI. Below are other events that may contribute to NIs.

Age (one extreme or the other)
Genetic/Acquired immunodeficiency
Organ transplant (immunosuppression required)
Physical/Mental Stress

NI are opportunistic as they attack when a patients defenses are compromised, decreased, or when they are introduced into an area of the body they are not naturally located. Opportunistic infections are not pathogenic to a health intact person like a true pathogen.

5 types of isolation

1) Enteric isolation:

Action: Gown/Glove for direct patient contact. Precautions for fecal/urine disposal

Reason: Prevention of diarrheal disease.

Respiratory Precautions:

Action: Private room/closed door. no G/G. Mask Required. secretion contamination to be disinfected.

Reason: Prevent spread of respirator disease (TB, Meningitis, etc)

Drainage/Secretion Precautions:

Action: G/G, no mask, contaminated instruments/dressings require special precautions

Reason: Prevent staph/staph infection, gangrene, zoster, etc

Strict isolation:

Action: Private Room/Closed door. G/G/M. Contaminated items wrapped and decontaminated.

Reason: Containment of hight virulent/contagious microbes, TB some pneumonia, etc.

Reverse/Protective isolation:

Action: Same as...
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