Nosocomial Infections (NI) can arise from an inanimate object or substance, other patients, medical personnel, visitors, air, water, even the health care process itself. Also, the use of reusable equipment/supplies, invasive devices or techniques (catheters, valves, etc.). Patients in a hospital setting are also exposed to more drug resistant strains of microbes; as in this setting the microbes are selected at a higher rate than outside the hospital due to antibiotic usage in the hospital. NI usually involve the urinary tract, respiratory tract, surgical incision sites, and blood; again usually points of entry/exit from the human body.
Events, some listed above, in NI. Below are other events that may contribute to NIs.
Age (one extreme or the other)
Organ transplant (immunosuppression required)
NI are opportunistic as they attack when a patients defenses are compromised, decreased, or when they are introduced into an area of the body they are not naturally located. Opportunistic infections are not pathogenic to a health intact person like a true pathogen.
5 types of isolation
1) Enteric isolation:
Action: Gown/Glove for direct patient contact. Precautions for fecal/urine disposal
Reason: Prevention of diarrheal disease.
Action: Private room/closed door. no G/G. Mask Required. secretion contamination to be disinfected.
Reason: Prevent spread of respirator disease (TB, Meningitis, etc)
Action: G/G, no mask, contaminated instruments/dressings require special precautions
Reason: Prevent staph/staph infection, gangrene, zoster, etc
Action: Private Room/Closed door. G/G/M. Contaminated items wrapped and decontaminated.
Reason: Containment of hight virulent/contagious microbes, TB some pneumonia, etc.
Action: Same as...
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