Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships

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NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS

LEA’s Series on Personal Relationships
Steve Duck, Series Editor
Bennett · Time and Intimacy: A New Science of Personal Relationships Canary/Dainton · Maintaining Relationships Through Communication: Relational, Contextual, and Cultural Variations Christopher · To Dance the Dance: A Symbolic Interaction Exploration of Premarital Sexuality Duncombe/Harrison/Allan/Marsden · The State of Affairs: Explorations in Infidelity and Commitment Emmers-Sommer/Allen · Safer Sex in Personal Relationships: The Role of Sexual Scripts in HIV Infection and Prevention Goodwin/Cramer · Inappropriate Relationships: The Unconventional, The Disapproved, and The Forbidden Guerrero/Floyd · Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships Honeycutt/Cantrill · Cognition, Communication, and Romantic Relationships Miller/Alberts/Hecht/Trost/Krizek · Adolescent Relationships and Drug Use Miller-Day · Communication Among Grandmothers, Mothers, and Adult Daughters: A Qualitative Study of Maternal Relationships Monsour · Women and Men as Friends: Relationships Across the Life Span in the 21st Century Rogers/Escudero · Relational Communication: An Interactional Perspective to the Study of Process and Form Yingling · A Lifetime of Communication: Transformations Through Relational Dialogues

For more information on LEA titles, please contact Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, at www.erlbaum.com

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS

Laura K. Guerrero Kory Floyd
Arizona State University

2006

LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS Mahwah, New Jersey London

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” Copyright Ó 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microform, retrieval system, or any other means, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers 10 Industrial Avenue Mahwah, New Jersey 07430 www.erlbaum.com Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Guerrero, Laura K. Nonverbal communication in close relationships / Laura K. Guerrero, Kory Floyd. p. cm. — (LEA’s series on personal relationships) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8058-4396-5 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN 0-8058-4397-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Nonverbal communication. 2. Interpersonal relations. I. Floyd, Kory. II. Title. III. Series. BF637.N66G84 2005 2005040135 CIP

ISBN 1-4106-1706-8 Master e-book ISBN

Contents

Series Foreword Steve Duck Preface

vii

xi 1

1

Introduction
Defining Nonverbal Communication 4 Perspectives on What Counts as Communication 9 An Overview of the Book 15

2

Major Paradigms and Theories of Nonverbal Communication
The Bio-Evolutionary Paradigm 18 The Sociocultural Paradigm 27 Specific Theories 35 Summary 54

17

3

Interpersonal Attraction
The Importance of Attractiveness 58 Markers of Physical Attractiveness 62 Flirting and Courtship 79 Summary 82

57

4

Communicating Affection
How Do Humans Convey Affection Nonverbally? 85 Predicting the Use of Nonverbal Affection Behaviors 95 Summary 105

84

v

vi

CONTENTS

5

Nonverbal Expressions of Emotion
Defining Emotion 108 Nonverbal Expressions of Emotions in Relationships 109 Emotional Skill in Close Relationships 121 Summary 131

107

6

Nonverbal Correlates of Power and Interpersonal Dominance
Defining Power, Dominance, and Status 134 Relative Power and Dominant Communication in Relationships 137 Nonverbal Correlates of Power 140 Sex Differences in Power Cues 145 Reducing Power Differentials 149 Interpersonal Dominance Through Social Skill 150 Interpersonal Dominance Through Intimidation or Threat 157 Summary 160

133

7

Interpersonal...
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