Kinesics & Proximics
Body Language & Paralanguage
Introduction to Nonverbal Communication
Definition of nonverbal communication ([Malandro, Barker & Barker 1989]): Nonverbal communication is the process by which nonverbal behaviours are used, either singly or in combination with verbal behaviours, in the exchange and interpretation of messages within a given situation or context. Classes of Nonverbal Communication ([Malandro, Barker & Barker 1989]): 1. facial expression and eye behaviour
2. body movement and gestures
3. touching behaviour
4. voice characteristics and qualities
5. culture and time
7. body types, shapes, and sizes
8. clothing and personal artifacts
Functions of Nonverbal Communication ([Malandro, Barker & Barker 1989]): A
Complementing: adding extra information to the verbal message
Contradicting: when our nonverbal messages contradict our verbal messages
Repeating: used in order to emphasize or clarify the verbal message
Regulating: serves to coordinate the verbal dialogue between people
Substituting: occurs when a nonverbal message is transmitted in place of a verbal message
Accenting: emphasizing a particular point in a verbal message
4.4. The role of emotional intelligence
The ability of interpreting the meaning of the discourse, the messages that the speaker truly wanted to convey, does not only concern the notion of Intelligence Quotient, but also the Emotional Quotient. The Emotional Quotient stands for emotional intelligence. People who are emotionally intelligent know their strong points and weaknesses. They are able to motivate themselves and others in negative situations. They can work in teams, have leadership-capacities, a good management of time and resources, and most important, they can detect and understand their own as well as other peoples’ emotions. The Emotional Quotient and the Intelligence Quotient are two different notions. However, in the act of interpreting, they join together. Thus, the interpretive process is not only a rational, cognitive activity, but also involves emotions, which are associated with ideas. Of course, interpreters can vary in their abilities to interpret human behaviour. It can be said that sometimes they lack emotional intelligence. Though, considering that people are deeply influenced by psychological, social, cultural processes, by gender, ethnicity and age, as well as by the media, interpreters should be aware of the hidden, inner dynamics that influence behaviours. Those who are able to think critically and to investigate the behaviour of the speaker are able to ferret out the nature of those symbols. However, communicative behaviour can be studied and learned. Interpreters can become increasingly skilled at interpreting human behaviour simply by keen observation. Furthermore, the more interpreters are mindful and pay attention to details and nuances in behaviour, to gestures, intonation, facial expressions, and body signals, the more they will detect the true meanings of the speaker’s discourse.
Principles of Nonverbal Communication
By Francis Duffy, eHow Contributor
updated: September 21, 2009
Reading a newspaper is easy compared to reading a person. Focus solely on a speaker's words, though, and you will likely miss his real meaning. Accompanying eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, posture and positioning, voice characteristics, and physiological cues tell you so much more. These spontaneous, often unconscious, behaviors compliment, contradict or accentuate what people say.
1. Eye contact is the most direct form of nonverbal communication. How long or short the stare and how often or infrequently someone does it in the course of a conversation reveals a lot. Frank, trusting people stare directly at you. People who...