The problem and its setting
In the early 1990’s, ten years after the snail was introduced for farming, nearly all Filipino rice farmers saw the snail as their greatest enemy. There are many ways of dealing with the problem, from hand-picking snails to transplanting older seedlings that are less vulnerable to the snail or raising ducks in the rice fields. (http://www.kelabit.net/news/special_report_01.html)
The golden apple snail, popularly known as “golden kuhol” (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) is one of the major pest problems in rice production. In 1989, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that yield tosses owing to this pest ranged from 1% to 40% of the planted area in the Philippines, resulting in huge production
It is a serious pest of young rice seedlings because it often cuts and kills growing seedlings. It also leaves large patches without rice, is particularly a more serious problem in direct-seeded crops.(http://www.applesnail.net/pestalert/management_guide/pest_management.php)
During dry periods or drought, the golden apple snails remain inactive in rice fields. They become active when fields are flooded. In the Philippines, 400,000 ha of rice were reported to be infested in 1988. In 1989, more than 16,000 has suffered from golden apple snail damage in Japan.(http://www.
Around the year 1980, the golden kuhol were cultured as a local food resource and as a potential gourmet export item. It is an introduced aquatic gastropod from South America. It was illegally brought it the Philippines but its markets were never developed and soon the Pomacea found its ways on our water ways and in rice fields of the country.(http://www.introductionofgoldenapplesnail.net/ricefield.php)
Sinta leaves contain the highest amount of andrographolide (2.39%), the most medicinally active phytochemical in the plant, while the seeds contain the lowest. The other medicinal chemicals are also bitter principles: diterpenoids viz. deoxyandrographolide, -19ß-D-glucoside, and neo-andrographolide, all of which have been isolated from the leaves. (http://www.altcancer.com/andcan.htm#101)
The primary medicinal component of Sinta plant is andrographolide. It has a very bitter taste, is a colorless crystalline in appearance, and is called a "diterpene lactone" - a chemical name that describes its ringlike structure. Besides the related bitters, other active components include 14-deoxy-11,12- didehydroandrographolide (andrographlide D), homoandrographolide, andrographan, andrographon, andrographosterin, and stigmasterol - the last of which was isolated from an Astrographis preparation.( http://www.altcancer.com/andcan.htm#101)
Andrographodile, Sinta’s main component contains ‘diterpene lactone’, an alkaloid that has a pesticidal property was tested as an effective mollusciscide.
Ever since then researches tried hard to find molluscicidal substances for the eradication of the pest, but without sacrificing the productivity value and the quality of the rice product. Along this line, this study has been conducted.
Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Sinta leaf extract as a molluscicide to golden apple snails.
1. What is the effect of Sinta leaf exract to golden apple snails?
2. Which of the concentrations could be most effective in controlling golden apple snails?
Hypothesis of the Study
1. There is no significant effect of Sinta leaf extract
to golden apple snails.
There is no significant difference among the varying concentration levels of Sinta leaf extract to golden apple snails.
Significance of the Study
Golden apple snails became the tremendous major pest in all fields destroying all areas where it has infested....
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