Roll no.: 6
Prof. Mrs. Amita Johnson M.com, M.K.S College University of Mumbai
2.Types of Non-tariff Barriers
3.Examples of Non-tariff Barriers
4.Impact of Non-tariff barrier on International trade
5.Non-tariff Barriers in India
6.Non-tariff Barriers Today
7.The Transition from Tariffs to Non-tariff barrier
Non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) are trade barriers that restrict imports but are not in the usual form of a tariff. Some common examples of NTB's are anti-dumping measures and countervailing duties, which, although they are called "non-tariff" barriers, have the effect of tariffs once they are enacted. It is a form of restrictive trade where barriers to trade are set up and take a form other than a tariff. Non-tariff barriers include quotas, levies, embargoes, sanctions and other restrictions, and are frequently used by large and developed economies. Some of non-tariff barriers are not directly related to foreign economic regulations, but nevertheless they have a significant impact on foreign-economic activity and foreign trade between countries.
Non-tariff barriers are another way for an economy to control the amount of trade that it conducts with another economy, either for selfish or altruistic purposes. Any barrier to trade will create an economic loss, as it does not allow markets to function properly. The lost revenues resulting from the barrier to trade can be called an economic loss.
Types of Non-tariff Barriers
There are several different variants of division of non-tariff barriers. Some scholars divide between internal taxes, administrative barriers, health and sanitary regulations and government procurement policies. Some of non-tariff barriers are not directly related to foreign economic regulations, but nevertheless they have a significant impact on foreign-economic activity and foreign trade between countries. Others divide non-tariff barriers into more categories such as specific limitations on trade, customs and administrative entry procedures, standards, government participation in trade, charges on import, and other categories. We choose traditional classification of non-tariff barriers, according to which they are divided into 3 principal categories.
The first category includes methods to directly import restrictions for protection of certain sectors of national industries: licensing and allocation of import quotas, antidumping and countervailing duties, import deposits, so-called voluntary export restraints, countervailing duties, the system of minimum import prices, etc. The second category follow methods that are not directly aimed at restricting foreign trade and more related to the administrative bureaucracy, whose actions, however, restrict trade, for example: customs procedures, technical standards and norms, sanitary and veterinary standards, requirements for labeling and packaging, bottling, etc. The third category consists of methods that are not directly aimed at restricting the import or promoting the export, but the effects of which often lead to this result. The non-tariff barriers can include wide variety of restrictions to trade.
There are mainly 6 types of non-tariff barriers:
1.Specific Limitations on Trade
2.Customs and Administrative Entry Procedures
4.Government Participation in Trade
5.Charges on imports
Specific Limitations on Trade:
Import Licensing requirements
Proportion restrictions of foreign...