* Non-infectious diseases (NIDs) are diseases NOT caused by a pathogen. They are also referred to as non-communicable diseases (NIDs). * Ex. include cancer, Parkinson’s and asthma.
* A variety of causes contribute to NIDs including genetics, lifestyle choices, and nutrition. Two types of NIDs
* NIDs are divided into 2 main groups:
* Genetic diseases are caused by mutations in DNA or conditions affecting chromosomes. * Environmental diseases are caused by avoidable and unavoidable environmental factors. * Many diseases, such as cancer, are believed to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Genetic Diseases
* Many diseases/conditions are caused by genetic conditions. * Down’s syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 * Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutation on the X chromosome Environmental Diseases
* Environmental diseases are cause by a variety of factors, some of which are avoidable, like a high fat diet, and others which are not, like various forms of radiation. * Heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity are all cause in part by avoidable factors. * Skin cancer is caused almost exclusively by overexposure to the sun. Multiple Factors
* Some diseases are clearly linked to both environmental and genetic factors. * Cancer is the most well known of such diseases.
* Some types of cancer are almost exclusively caused by environmental factors (skin), others by genetics (breast) while others have an unclear mixture of the two (lung). Treatment of NIDs
* The majority of NIDs cannot be ‘cured’ but often the can be treated and the effects of their symptoms can be maintained. * The combination of genetic and environmental causes makes diseases like cancer incomprehensibly difficult to cure. * Conditions like Down’s syndrome are present in every cell of the body and are likewise very difficult to treat or cure. Preventing NIDs
Please join StudyMode to read the full document