Non Conventional Methods of Gas Liquefaction

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Nonconventional Methods of Gas Liquefaction
Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics-II Project

Submission Date:
13 December 2012
Group members:
Anum Yousuf Khan
Arooj Fatima
Fatima Khalid
Hiba Mujeeb
Rida Altaf
Syed Shahrukh Madni
Taibah Jaffery
Why we need new methods?4
1.Thermoacoustic Liquefaction4
Construction and Working4
2.Magnetic liquefaction of Hydrogen Gas6
Hydrogen Magnetic Refrigerator:6
3.Collins Helium Liquefaction System8
Formation Background:8
Working and construction:8
Challenge of Helium Liquefaction:9
4.Liquefin: An Innovative Process10
Basic process:10
Unconventional Features of Liquefin:11
5.Kapitza Method of Liquefaction12
Basic Principle:12
Construction and mechanism:12
6.Gas Liquefaction Using Supersonic Nozzle13
Basic Principle:13
Applications and Advantages:14
7.Industrial Gas Liquefaction with Azeotropic Fluid Forecooling15 Basic Principle15
The edge this method has over others:15
8.Liquefaction using Fischer-Tropsch process16
Process Description16

This report elaborates upon some nonconventional methods of gas liquefaction. The most widely used methods are applications of Linde’s and Claude’s cycle, however over time various variations have brought about improvements in yield and efficiency. Some of our cases are involve such variations. Also some completely new and revolutionary ways to accomplish liquefaction have been discovered like Thermoacoustic Liquefaction. In the proceeding pages we shall briefly discuss each of the methods and their advantages or disadvantages as compared to conventional methods. Different methods vary in advantages such as efficiency, or being economical and environmentally friendly. All advantages can, however, never be found together in any one method. Whichever methods have advantages over others, are accompanied by a description or mention of the plus points. Why we need new methods?

The liquefaction of industrial gas is a power intensive operation. Typically the industrial gas is liquefied by indirect heat exchange with a refrigerant. Such a system, while working well for providing refrigeration over a relatively small temperature range from ambient, is not as efficient when refrigeration over a large temperature range, such as from ambient to a cryogenic temperature, is required. 1.Thermoacoustic Liquefaction

It is a novel method of liquefaction of gas using Thermoacoustic heat engines- That is, heat engines that use sound waves to perform the heat exchange. Principle:
A Thermoacoustic Heat Engine converts thermal energy directly to acoustic energy in the form of high amplitude, oscillating pressure wave – a sound wave. Orifice pulse tube refrigerators convert an oscillating pressure wave into refrigeration power, routinely at temperatures as low as 240°C. Combining these two technologies results in the only cryogenic refrigeration technology that requires no moving parts. Construction and Working:

Thermoacoustic Heat Engines are a collection of heat exchangers arranged within a network of piping and all filled with pressurized helium gas. In the engine, one heat exchanger is heated to roughly 700C (1300F), a second heat exchanger is held at ambient temperature, and a third, between the other two, is thermally floating. The input heat sets up a temperature gradient across the heat exchangers, which produces an oscillating pressure wave in the helium gas. This oscillating wave drives the pulse tube refrigerator producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures. The only thing moving in the system is the oscillating helium gas. The capacity...
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