“The novel is the first impartial and bold account of the life of the Tagalogs. The Filipinos will find in it the history of the last 10 years” -Jose Rizal on Noli Me Tangere
Opposition to the Novel:
• The special committee of the faculty of the University of Sto. Tomas condemned the novel as heretical, impious and scandalous at the request of Archbishop Pedro Payo. • The committee and the archbishop deemed it harmful to the Spanish government here in the Philippines. • 28 December 1887: Fray Salvador Fort (Cura ng Tondo and head of the Permanent Commission of Sensorship); prohibited the circulation of the book. • OPPOSITION AND NEGATIVE PUBLICITY LEAD TO CURIOSITY OF THE PUBLIC. = more people read the book = increase awareness • Caiingat Cayo (Beware): Jose Rodriguez; pamphlet claiming that reading the Noli will cause the reader to commit the mortal sin, heresy.
• Caiigat Cayo (be slippery as an eel): Marcelo H. Del Pilar (penname: Dolores Mangsat); counters Caiingat Cayo. Took on the same format as Caiingat.
THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT:
• Members of this movement are called propagandists or reformists. • Objectives:
o Recognition of the Philippine as a province of Spain
o Equal status for both Filipinos and Spaniards
o Philippine representation at the Spanish Court
o Secularization of the Philippine Parishes
o Recognition of Human Rights
NOLI ME TANGERE Published in Berlin (1887)
• bleak winter of 1886 was memorable in the life of rizal
o first, painful – hungry, sick and despondent in a strange city
o second – brought him great joy, after enduring so much sufferings, his first novel came of the press
• Noli Me Tangere came off the press in March, 1887
• Dr. Maximo Viola, his friend from Bulacan, arrived in Berlin at the height o9f his despondency and loaned him the needed funds to publish the novel.
1. Idea of writing a novel on the Philippines
a. Reading “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe that portrays the brutalities of American slave-owners and the pathetic conditions of the unfortunate Negro slaves, inspired Rizal to prepare a novel that would depict the miseries of his people under the lash of the Spanish tyrants (student at the Central University of Madrid)
b. January 2, 1884, Filipino reunion in Paterno residence in Madrid, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines by a group of Filipinos.
c. Proposal approved unanimously by: The Paternos (Pedro, Maximo and Antonio)
i. Graciano Lopez Jaena
ii. Evaristo Aguirre
iii. Eduardo de Lete
iv. Julio Llorente
v. Melecio Figueroa
vi. Valentin Ventura
d. Unfortunately, his project did not materialize, those who were expected to collaborate on the novel did not write anything.
i. Novel designed to cover all phases of Philippine Life
ii. Everybody wanted to write on women – Rizal was disgusted by this
iii. Rizal determined to write the novel – alone
2. The Writing of the Noli
a. Toward the end of 1884, Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and finished about one-half of it
b. Paris, 1885, completed studies in Central University of Madrid – continued writing the novel – finished one-half of the second-half
c. Finished the last fourth of the novel in Germany
d. Wrote the last few chapters of Noli in Wilhelmsfeld in April-June, 1886
e. February 1886, winter in Berlin – final revisions of manuscript of Noli was made
f. Sick and penniless – he was hopeless in being able to publish it
g. Because of desperation, he almost burned the novel
h. Years later, Rizal told his friend and former classmate, Fernando Canon:
i. “I did not believe that Noli Me Tangere would ever be published when I was in Berlin, broken-hearted, weakened and discouraged from hunger and deprivation. I...