In-Depth Theorist Presentation, Nola J. Pender
Health Promotion Model
Description of the theory
The Health Promotion Model (HPM), designed by Nola J. Pender, describes the multidimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health while increasing their level of well-being. Pender offers a theory that places importance on behaviors that improve health through a lifetime. The HPM offers insight into how influencing factors experienced by an individual and their interactions with the environment affect the pursuit of health. HPM remains applicable as health promotion and illness prevention continue to be as important as the treatment of disease. Health is an active state in which constant efforts are made by the individual, in their environment, to achieve and maintain health. The patient has a distinct set of factors influencing their actions to attain health. The success of the HPM is based on the assumption that an individual is willing and able to play an active role through health promoting behavior (Alligood & Tomey, 2010). Internal evaluation and analysis of the theory
Identify assumptions, both explicit and implicit. Assumptions are statements that are understood to be true without proof or demonstration. They are beliefs about phenomena one accepts as true. Pender’s assumptions of the Health Promotion Model are explicit and testable. Explicit assumptions are statements that are clearly defined and eliminate (remove any) ambiguity. Due to the explicit nature, this model has been used as the basis of many research studies, both nursing and non-nursing. The explicit assumptions of Pender’s theory include:
1) Persons seek to create conditions of living through which they can express their unique human health potential. 2) Persons have the capacity for reflective self-awareness, including assessment of their own competencies. 3) Persons value growth in directions viewed as positive and attempt to achieve a personally acceptable balance between change and stability. 4) Individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior. 5) Individuals in all their biopsychosocial complexity interact with the environment, progressively transforming the environment and being transformed over time. 6) Health professionals constitute a part of the interpersonal environment, which exerts influence on persons throughout their life spans. 7) Self-initiated reconfiguration of person-environment interactive patterns is essential to behavior change (Alligood & Tomey, 2010).
How does the theorist define the four concepts of the paradigm of nursing? These concepts are: Nursing, Environment, Person and Health. Most theorists have defined these concepts differently. While the HPM focuses on health promotion and offers many holistic approaches to understanding health, the four major concepts of the nursing paradigm are not defined by Pender. The model helps nurses plan and implement health-promoting changes. It takes into consideration the multidimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health while increasing their level of well-being. How does the theorist define and inter-relate major concepts of their own theory? While health promoting behaviors are the desired outcome of the model, Pender identifies relationships between concepts. The model links the major concepts under three headings: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcome. Individual characteristics, which include prior related behaviors and personal factors, are the best predictors of future behavior. Individual characteristics affect behavior specific cognitions and affect. The behavior specific cognitions and affect are listed by Pender as the following: Perceived benefits...