History of Nokia - one of the most incredible sagas of business 90-x of the last century. As written magazine BusinessWeek, in the early 90's Finnish conglomerate bothered far removed from cellular problem: then began to decline sharply sales standing at the threshold of collapse of the Soviet Union ... toilet paper. And by the end of the millennium the same Finns shifted toward cell phones, surpassed by new market and Ericsson and Motorola. Nokia quickly enough became one of the leading players in the global telecommunications market, as well as one of the richest European companies. But first things first ...
Out of the woods
History of the company decided to run from the Nokia 1865. May 12, 1865 Finnish mining engineer Fredrik Idestam received permission to build a factory for the production of pulp from the river Nokia. It was the beginning of the future Nokia Corporation. It is in these years came the rapid growth of the industry. Industrialization, the demand for paper and cardboard for growing cities and offices grew by the day. And now, on the site of the factory, mill rose pulp and paper mill. Over time, Nokia factory attracted a large number of workers, and soon formed around the same city - Nokia. The company grew out of the national scale, the paper was delivered Nokia's first in Russia, then in England, France, and even China. In the late 1860s, demand for paper products in Finland many times surpassed the volume of domestic production, making the import of raw materials from Russia and Sweden. In February 1871 was based Nokia Corporation (Nokia Aktiebolag). The company won the confidence in Denmark, Germany, Russia, Britain, France and Poland. By the way, an important role in getting the international arena Nokia played businessmen from St. Petersburg.
Coalition of three
Meanwhile, in the United States, "rubber fever" beginning of the 1830s ended as suddenly as it had begun. Many investors lost millions of dollars. But bankrupt equipment manufacturer from Philadelphia, Charles Goodyear continued to experiment with rubber. In February 1839, he discovered the phenomenon of the vulcanization. At the same time he created a waterproof rubber, which enabled to use this material in a variety of settings. In 1898, Frank Seiberling founded the company Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, and bought it for the first plant. In ten years, Goodyear has become the world's largest enterprise producing rubber.
In Finland, the products of rubber appeared in the late XIX century. The first products were the shoes and various items of rubberized fabric. At first, they were a luxury, but very quickly raincoats and galoshes gained popularity in urban and rural areas. Rubber products has become a fixture not only the consumer, but also the business market. In connection with the industrialization of a demand for different equipment, which meant that the need for all kinds of rubber products. In Finland, the main producer of such products was the company Finnish Rubber Works (FRW). When management decided FRW move its production from Helsinki to the countryside, it chose the site near c Nokia. Opportunity to cheaply buy from Nokia power was decisive - the river, about which there was a plant, to serve not only as an ornament of the landscape, but is also a source of cheap energy.
In 1912, the company opened the center of Helsinki, which received the name of the later Finnish Cable Works. Increasing demand for electric power transmission, as well as the rapid development of the telegraph and telephone networks accommodate the rapid growth of the company. Looking ahead, it should be noted that after the Second World War, the company almost a monopoly, who owned an absolute majority of the Finnish manufacturers cable. In 1920, these three companies: Nokia Corporation, Finnish Rubber Works and Finnish Cable Works, entered into a coalition to form the Nokia Group .. Participation in this industrial...