Nokia Case Study

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1/05/2013

Intercultural Communication
Chapter 6
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Lecture themes
The importance of studying intercultural communication Richard Lewis’ cultural model Non-verbal communication Edward T. Hall’s theories

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Model of Culture
Time focus Space Time Orientation Power Structure Communication Competition

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Classical Model of Communication
Sender Noise
Encode message by sender

Noise

Noise
Decode message by receiver

Receiver Noise
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Cross cultural marketing blunders
The Dairy Association's huge success with the campaign "Got Milk?" prompted them to expand advertising to Mexico. It was soon brought to their attention the Spanish translation read "Are you lactating?"

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Cross cultural marketing blunders
Gerber‘s entry into selling baby food in Africa featured a beautiful Caucasian baby on the label. In Africa, marketers put pictures on the label of what’s inside since most people can’t read.

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Richard Lewis
Richard Lewis Communications was founded by Richard D. Lewis, one of Britain’s foremost linguists. One of his books, When Cultures Collide, has sold over 500,000 copies.

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Cultural types Model

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Common traits of LMR
Linear Active Introvert Quiet Minds own business Likes privacy Delegates to competent colleagues Brief on telephone Multi-Active Extrovert Talkative Inquisitive Gregarious Delegates to relations Talks for hours Reactive Introvert Silent Respectful Good listener Delegates to reliable people Summarises well

Source: http://www.utntyh.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/When-Cultures-Collide.pdf 9

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Listening Habits
Communication is a two-way process, involving the communicative skill of the speaker, and the listening habits of the interlocutor or audience. Just as different cultures don’t use speech the same way, neither do they listen the same way. There are good listeners and there are bad ones.

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Listening Habits Germany Japan Australia Arab Sweden

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Discussion
Discuss the communication pattern of Swedes. How different is Swedish communication pattern to your communication pattern? What would be the problems you might face working with a person from Sweden?

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Non-verbal communication
Kinesics Oculesics Chromatics Proxemics

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Kinesics
Introduced by Ray Birdwhistell Pre-kinesics Micro-kinesics Social kinesics

Oculesics
Oculesics refers to eye contact or contact avoidance. Contact avoidance is interpreted as a sign of ……

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Chromatics
Communication through the use of colour. Can you identify the importance of following colours:

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Proxemics

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Edward T Hall
served in the US Army observed difficulties created by failures of intercultural communication.

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The Dynamism of Space Intimate Distance Personal Distance Social Distance Public Distance

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The Dynamism of Space
Intimate Distance (1.5 feet Personal Distance (4 feet) Social Distance (12 feet) Public Distance (25 feet) 20

Non Verbal cues used by effective managers
Lightly touching subordinates on the arm and shaking hands Smiling appropriately Nodding to affirm what was said Slightly pulling their chairs closer to subordinates and maintaining open posture Engaging eye contact to further demonstrate listening and interest (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2009, p. 249)

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Edward T Hall
Hall is best known for having developed the following concepts: High context Low context Polychronic Monochronic

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Dimensions of Culture – Hall
Context is defined by Hall (1989) as the ‘information that surrounds an event’ (Kim et al, 1998). The two poles are: High Context (HC)

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Low Context (LC)

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Dimensions of Culture – Hall
HC communication or message is one in which most of the information is either in the physical context or internalised in the person, while very little is the coded, explicit...
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