Noise Pollution in Urban Centers of Ghana

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Background to the study
Noise is a disturbance to the human environment that is escalating at such a high rate that it will become a major threat to the quality of human lives. In the past thirty years, noise in all areas, especially in urban areas, has been increasing rapidly. There are numerous effects on the human environment due to the increase in noise pollution. Slowly, unresponsively, we seem to accept noise and the physiological and psychological deterioration that accompanies it as an inevitable part of our lives. Although we attempt to set standards for some of the most major sources of noise, we often are unable to monitor them. Community awareness of environmental noise has increased and there is a higher expectation for state and local government to reduce noise levels. Noise pollution has become worldwide concern and studies have shown that more than 20% of the world population lives under unacceptable noise levels. Noise pollution can be defined as unwanted or offensive sounds that unreasonably intrude into our daily activities. It has many sources, most of which are associated with urban development: road, air and rail transport; industrial noise; neighborhood and recreational noise. A number of factors contribute to problems of high noise levels, including; increasing population, particularly where it leads to increasing urbanization and urban, consolidation; activities associated with urban living generally lead to increased noise levels and increasing volumes of road, rail and air traffic. Noise pollution can be categorized under the following sources: domestic, industrial, produced by construction works and transport. Domestic noise includes those that are created as a result of certain human activities such as household chores, smaller businesses attached to the home such as corn mills and other noises made by household members. Previously, industries were located far from human settlement so the issue of noise pollution was mainly not from...
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