Urban development, with its links to technology, population growth and industry, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of noise that people are exposed to. Because noise is any unwanted sound which varies according to time and exposure to the sound by individuals it has a number of characteristics. What one person may perceive as noise may be a pleasing sound to the next person. However both community members and noise specialists agree that there is a trend of increasing noise pollution. Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness. Noise may not seem as harmful as the contamination of air or water, but it is a pollution problem that affects human health and can contribute to a general deterioration of environmental quality.
Sources of Noise Pollution:-
Noise pollution like other pollutants is also a by- product of industrialization, urbanizations and modern civilization. Broadly speaking , the noise pollution has two sources, i.e. industrial and non- industrial. The industrial source includes the noise from various industries and big machines working at a very high speed and high noise intensity. Non- industrial source of noise includes the noise created by transport/vehicular traffic and the neighborhood noise generated by various noise pollution can also be divided in the categories , namely, natural and manmade. 1. Road Traffic Noise:-
In the city, the main sources of traffic noise are the motors and exhaust system of autos , smaller trucks, buses, and motorcycles. This type of noise can be augmented by narrow streets and tall buildings, which produce a canyon in which traffic noise reverberates. 2. Air Craft Noise: -
Now-a-days , the problem of low flying military aircraft has added a new dimension to community annoyance, as the nation seeks to improve its nap-of the- earth aircraft operations over national parks, wilderness areas , and other areas previously unaffected by aircraft noise has claimed national attention over recent years. 3. Noise from railroads: -
The noise from locomotive engines, horns and whistles, and switching and shunting operation in rail yards can impact neighboring communities and railroad workers. For example, rail car retarders can produce a high frequency, high level screech that can reach peak levels of 120 dB at a distance of 100 feet, which translates to levels as high as 138, or 140 dB at the railroad worker’s ear. 4. Construction Noise:-
The noise from the construction of highways , city streets , and buildings is a major contributor to the urban scene . Construction noise sources include pneumatic hammers, air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks (and their back-up signals), and pavement breakers. 5. Noise in Industry: -
Although industrial noise is one of the less prevalent community noise problems, neighbors of noisy manufacturing plants can be disturbed by sources such as fans, motors, and compressors mounted on the outside of buildings Interior noise can also be transmitted to the community through open windows and doors, and even through building walls. These interior noise sources have significant impacts on industrial workers, among whom noise- induced hearing loss is unfortunately common. 6. Noise in building: -
Apartment dwellers are often annoyed by noise in their homes, especially when the building is not well designed and constructed. In this case, internal building noise from plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, and fans, can be audible and annoying. Improperly insulated walls and ceilings can reveal the soundof-amplified music, voices, footfalls and noisy activities from neighboring units. External noise from emergency vehicles, traffic, refuse collection, and other city noises can be a problem for urban residents, especially when windows...
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