Element | Symbol | Atomic number| Atomic mass| Boiling point (K)| Melting point (K)| Uses| Discovery| Helium| He| 2| 4.003| 4.216| 0.95
| Helium is used as a component of breathing gases due to its low solubility in fluids or lipids. If helium is used to replace part of the breathing mixture, it causes a decrease in the narcotic effect of the gas at far depths. Helium is used to shield welding arcs and the surrounding base metal from the atmosphere during welding. | Sir William Ramsay isolated helium on Earth by treating a variety of rare elements with acids|
Neon| Ne| 10| 20.18| 27.1| 24.7
| Neon is used in many things, such as: neon advertising and decorative lights, fog lights, TV cine-scopes, lasers, voltage detectors, luminous warnings and also advertising signs | These noble gases discovered by Morris W. Travers and Sir William Ramsay in 1898. Ramsay discovered Neon by chilling a sample of the atmosphere until liquid phase, then captured the gases as the boiled off by warming up the liquid. |
Argon| Ar| 18| 39.948| 87.29| 83.6
| Argon is used in electronics to provide a protective heat transfer medium for ultra-pure semiconductors from silicon crystals and for growing germanium. Argon can also fill fluorescent and incandescent light bulbs; creating the blue light found in neon type lamps. Argon’s low thermal conductivity makes it useful in providing a gas barrier needed to produce double-pane insulated windows. This insulation barrier improves the windows' energy efficiency. Argon also creates an inert gas shield during welding; to flush out melted metals to eliminate porosity in casting; and to provide an oxygen-and-nitrogen free environment for annealing and rolling metals and alloys. | John William Strutt and William Ramsay took a sample of air and removed the oxygen by reacting it with copper...