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Population, Poverty &
Unemployment
General Economics

Population
• Population refers to Total number of People
residing in a Place.
• Growth in Population is considered to be
favourable in certain Countries like Australia
because:
– It provides Work Force to Produce.
– It provides Markets for the Products Produced.
– It may Promote Innovative Ideas.
– It may Promote Division of Labour & Specialization.
General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

2

Population
• Growth in Population is not desirable for
Countries like India because:
– There may not be adequate Jobs to absorb all
additional People.
– They put pressure on Means of Subsistence.
– They put pressure on Social Overheads (hospitals,
roads, schools, etc.)
– They may result in Increased Consumption &
reduced Savings & hence slow down Capital
Formation.
– They may Increase Economics:Population,Poverty&
General Dependency.
3
Unemployment

Demographic Trends in India








Size of Population
Rate of Growth
Birth Rate & Death Rate
Density of Population
Sex Ratio
Life-Expectancy at Birth
Literacy Ratio

General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

4

Demographic Trends in India
• Size of Population
The Size of Population is determined in
terms of Number of Person.
The Population has rose from 23.84
crores in 1901 to 102.27 crores in 2001.
Now, it is 111 crores (2005-06).
India’s Population ranks 2nd in the
World after China.
General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

5

Demographic Trends in India
• Size of Population
India has about 2.4% of the World’s
area & Less than 1.2% of the World’s
Income but accommodates about
16.7% of the World’s Population.
Every Sixth person in the World is an
Indian.
General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

6

Demographic Trends in India
• Rate of Growth
→Year 1921 is known as “Year of Great
Divide’ for India’s Population.
Decade

Growth Rate per decade

(Per cent) per annum

1901-1911

05.74

00.56

1911-1921

(-) 00.31

(-) 00.03

1921-1931

11.00

01.04

1941-1951

13.31

01.25

1951-1961

21.64

01.96

1971-1981

24.66

02.14

1981-1991

23.86

02.14

1991-2001

General Economics:Population,Poverty&
21.34
Unemployment

01.93

7

Demographic Trends in India
• Birth Rate & Death Rate
Birth Rate refers to number of Birth per
thousand of Population.
Death Rate refers to number of Deaths per
thousand of Population.
Birth Rate has declined from 39.9 in 1951
to 25.4 in 2001 & 23.8 in 2005.
Death Rate has declined from 27.4 in 1951
to 8.4 in 2001 & 7.6 in 2005.
General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

8

Demographic Trends in India
• Density of Population
 Density of Population refers to the
number of Persons per square
kilometer.
It has increased from 117 in 1951 to
274 in 1991 & 324 in 2001.
Density of Population is not same for
all the States.
General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

9

Demographic Trends in India
• Density of Population
 Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar & U.P. have
Density higher than the Average
Density.
Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh,
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Rajasthan, Orissa, etc. have lower
Density than the Average Density.
General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

10

Demographic Trends in India
• Density of Population
West Bengal is the most densely
populated State in the country with 904
persons living per sq. km. followed by
Bihar with 880.
Industrially Well Developed Areas have
Higher Density.
General Economics:Population,Poverty&
Unemployment

11

Demographic Trends in India
• Sex Ratio
Sex Ratio refers to the number of
Females per 1000 males.
Sex Ratio has increased from 927 in
1991 to 933 in 2001.
Kerala has the favourable Sex Ratio of
945 in 2001 which has decreased from
976 in 1991 & 984 in...
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