Nist 2002 Software Testing

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qu ic de r g om Ina fo nin on of re ng lan P Ec ts ctu sti he ac tru Te T p s e Im fra ar In ftw So ep R
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f eo y t itu log t Ins chno l ce na Te ffi nd o O ati ds & m ng a up N r a a gr nni Gro d o Pr Pla sis an 2 St y 00 2 ic al eg An ay t c M ra St omi n co E U.S Department of Commerce Technology Administration

RTI Project Number 7007.011

The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Infrastructure for Software Testing Final Report

May 2002

Prepared for Gregory Tassey, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology Acquisition and Assistance Division Building 101, Room A1000 Gaithersburg, MD 20899-0001

Prepared by RTI Health, Social, and Economics Research Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

Contents
Executive Summary 1. Introduction to Software Quality and Testing 1.1 1.2 ES-1 1-1

Software Quality Attributes................................................ 1-3 Software Quality Metrics ................................................... 1-6 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 What Makes a Good Metric ................................... 1-7 What Can be Measured ......................................... 1-8 Choosing Among Metrics....................................... 1-8

1.3 1.4

Software Testing.............................................................. 1-10 The Impact of Inadequate Testing .................................... 1-11 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 Failures due to Poor Quality................................. 1-11 Increased Software Development Costs ................ 1-12 Increased Time to Market..................................... 1-12 Increased Market Transaction Costs...................... 1-13 2-1

2.

Software Testing Methods and Tools 2.1 2.2

Historical Approach to Software Development................... 2-1 Software Testing Infrastructure ........................................... 2-4 2.2.1 2.2.2 Software Testing Stages .......................................... 2-4 Commercial Software Testing Tools........................ 2-7 Conformance Testing............................................. 2-9 Interoperability Testing ........................................ 2-10 Relationship between Software Stages, Testing Types, and Testing Tools...................................... 2-13 Standardized Software Testing Technologies ........ 2-15

2.3

Software Testing Types ...................................................... 2-9 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.4 2.3.5

3.

Inadequate Infrastructure for Software Testing: Overview and Conceptual Model 3.1

3-1

Software Testing Inadequacies ........................................... 3-2

iii

3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.2 3.3

Integration and Interoperability Testing Issues......... 3-2 Automated Generation of Test Code....................... 3-3 Lack of a Rigorous Method for Determining When a Product Is Good Enough to Release........... 3-3 Lack of Readily Available Performance Metrics and Testing Procedures .......................................... 3-4 Approaches for Improving Software Testing Infrastructure ......................................................... 3-5

Conceptual Economic Model............................................. 3-6 Software Developers ......................................................... 3-7 3.3.1 3.3.2 Cost Framework..................................................... 3-7 Factors Influencing the Profit-Maximizing Level of R&D Expenditures.............................................. 3-9 Cost Framework................................................... 3-12 Quality’s Impact on Market Prices........................ 3-14

3.4 3.5 3.6

End Users........................................................................ 3-12 3.4.1 3.5.1 The Market for Software Products .................................... 3-14 Modeling an Inadequate Software Testing Infrastructure................................................................... 3-15 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3...
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