This paper will introduce the country profile of Switzerland first and make a short discuss in terms of its business environment especially in its economic character and business advantage, then investigate the definition of National Innovation System (NIS). Next, analyze and discuss some components of NIS in Switzerland, for instance, what are the policies, decisions, or directives made by the government institutions can promote or hinder innovation in this country? Can a corporation be easier to have access to credit? Can students in this country be trained specifically to innovate by universities? Which industry in this country probably is the more innovative potential one? After these discussion to sum up by personal and critical view in terms of whether or not investing in Switzerland is likely to promote innovation.
Country profile of Switzerland and Definition of NIS
In aspect of geographical position, Switzerland is situated in Western Europe, compared to its small size; it sits in the center of three enormous European countries (Germany, France and Italy). Duo to its strategic location, Switzerland has been at the cross-roads of major international trade routes, people in Switzerland can reach all major cities of Europe less than two hours, and this is an geographical advantage for it to become the international business contacts and organizations center. In political aspect, this country has four national languages which contain German, French, Italian and the lesser-known Romansh, the official language is German. Benefit from the different language groups and cultural regions, this country has a high degree of tolerance and personal freedom. By reference to the World Competitiveness Yearbook 2012, Switzerland got the leading position in the international comparisons in terms of security, private prosperity, social coherence and political stability; this is a social advantage for international business. In human capital field, as confirmed by The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005, the workforce of Switzerland is regard as highly motivated, and the low regulation density, the liberal labor law and outstanding social stability earned reputation for the Swiss labor market. In addition, duo to the low level of absenteeism and the practically non-existent strikes, the annual working hours of Switzerland are obviously longer than in other European countries (Switzerland Official website). In terms of national economy, Switzerland is the one of the most high-income economies worldwide, this country also is regard as a modern and investment-friendly nation. The country’s exports, with pharmaceuticals, watches and orthopedic appliances as its most popular goods, account for more than half of GDP. Especially watch industry of Switzerland keep the leading position in the world. In the 2011-2012 Global Competitiveness Report, the World Economic Forum again crowned Switzerland as having the most competitive and robust business environment in the world (Stephenson and Witters, 2012).
In order to better learn the concept of National Innovation Systems, it must first know what the indicators which be used to appraise the innovation and technology progress are. Although these still are the important measurement of technology endeavor, conventional indicators such as expenditures on research, the number of research personnel or patents already could not reflect the trends in innovation, growth and productivity, especially in measuring the general “Innovativeness” of an economy. In this case, recent theory stresses that the important role of the interactions or linkages among actors involved in technology development. The main bodies of actors are the private enterprises, universities and public research institutes and the people within them. That is because after a complex set of relationships among actors, innovation and technical progress are the outcome of various kinds of knowledge be producing,...