Nike, Greek Goddess of Victory
In Greek mythology, Nike was a goddess who personified victory. She was the beautiful goddess of strength. Her great speed enabled her to be victorious. This is why she is also known as the Winged Goddess of Victory. Nike is the daughter of Pallas, a Titan and Styx. She had three brothers, Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal & Jealously). Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings. Her symbols include a wreath or sash to crown a victor, an oinochoe and phiale (bowl and cup) for libations, a thymiaterion (incense burner), an altar, and a lyre for the celebration of victory in song. She also appears carrying a palm branch, wreath, or Hermes staff as the messenger of victory. Nike has also been seen holding a trophy, or, frequently, hovering with outspread wings over the victor in a competition. Her functions referred to success not only in war but, in all of her undertakings. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena, and is thought to be in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. When Nike and Athena are placed together Nike is always wingless whereas if Nike were alone she is winged. Nike is one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek coins. Some common names stemming from Nike include : Nicholas, Nick, Nikolai, Nils, Klaas, Nicole, Ike, Niki, Nikita, Nika, Niketas, Nico, and Nicola.
Primary sources used in this assignment;
Hesiod, Theogony 383 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) 2.
Bacchylides, Fragment 11 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) 3.
Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) 4.
Hesiod, Theogony 383 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) 5.
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 205 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) 6.
Orphic Hymn 33 to Nike (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) 7.
History of Ancient Deities pg 345
Secondary sources used in...
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