Nicotine Intake and Academic Performance

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Nicotine Intake and Academic Performance

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to find the affect of nicotine intake on the academic performance of students. Previous studies conducted by other researchers have shown that nicotine can have a number of positive and negative effects on people. Our alternate hypothesis will be the relationship between the two variables, nicotine and academic performance, is a negative one. The sample will consist of 500 students, both male and female, from 5 different universities randomly selected in Lahore. A questionnaire, consisting of 15 questions is prepared and will be given to all the students in order to obtain the results necessary for our research. A number of intervening variables such as the time spent studying, average sleeping hours and interest level will also be considered and studied through the questionnaire. The correlation of each intervening variable will also be calculated.

Tables of Contents

Executive Summary…………………….………………………………………………………………3
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Background...4, Literature Review...5, Theoretical Framework...10, Hypothesis Development...11
Methodology12
Sample…12, Apparatus…12, Procedure…12
Results13
Discussion14
Acknowledgments…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15 References…………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………16 Appendix………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19 Questionnaire…19, Tables…24

Tables
Table 1.1: Measure of Central Tendency - Mean………………………………………………………..24 Table 1.2: Correlations…………………………………………………………………………………..24 Table1.3: Multiple Correlations and Standard Error…………………………………………………….24

Introduction

Nicotine intake in the form of cigarette smoking is common among university students these days. Therefore our research will attempt to analyze how this habit affects their academic performance. Research Question and Significance:

Problem statement:
We define our problem as follows:
“Does the intake of nicotine have any effect on the academic performance of students of Lahore?” Research objectives:
We will be determining the correlation between the two variables and the direction of the relationship between them. Since our research will mainly be a field study, we will only be observing the effects of nicotine and there will be minimum or no interference by us in the amount of intake by our subjects.

Implications of research:
It would be useful to find out whether this habit is having a negative or positive effect on the performance of students. It would be useful in helping the college administrations in setting a policy to counter or discourage this trend in whatever way it deems fit.

2..Specific aims:

Literature Review
Cigarette smoking is a common habit among a noticeably large number of students these days. Nicotine, which is found in cigarettes, is known to have chemical properties that alter the state of body and mind (Fornis, 2007). In order to investigate the effects, whether they are negative or positive, that nicotine might have on the academic performance of these students, different aspects of nicotine intake must be considered. * As far as pharmacology is concerned, nicotine is distributed quickly through the bloodstream and can cross over to the brain. On average it takes about seven seconds for the substance to reach the brain after it is inhaled. The time it takes for nicotine to decay in the body is around two hours (Jones & Rosenberg, 1998).  * On the psychoactive front, nicotine's mood-altering effects are many. Firstly, causing a release of some hormones, it causes stimulation. Users report feelings of relaxation, sharpness, calmness, and alertness (Lagrue, 2001). By reducing the appetite and raising the metabolism, some smokers may lose weight as a consequence (Orsini, 2001). When a cigarette is smoked, nicotine-rich blood passes from the lungs to...
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