This study was conducted at Ntyuka Village in Dodoma urban district. The primary data were collected on a sample of households, ward executive officer and village executive officer. These data were collected using direct observation and questionnaires. The representative sample group of people in the village was questioned using structured questionnaires in order to evaluate the impact of agricultural activities into environmental degradation. The secondary data included the journals and statistical data reports. After data collection, analysis and presentation, the Chapter Five provides for the results of the research, where by it shows how agricultural practices has mostly affected environment negatively in the specific village, where by the Conclusions and Recommendations are provided after discussions of the research findings.
We wish to express our sincere gratitude to all individuals whose assistance has made possible the completion of this work but special thanks must go to our Supervisor, Dr.Ngowi Edwin and course coordinator Dr. V. Venkatakrishnan. We worked together in every step of the work, as they offered extensive assistance. Their help was invaluable: they saved us from serious mistakes, and made us rethink certain arguments. We are especially grateful to many individuals whom we interviewed and talked to, including those from the Ntyuka village whom are the farmers and the Village Executive Officer. They were instrumental in the success of this work. Mentioning them individually by name is not easy but to all we say thank you a million times.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background Information
Agriculture as the predominant sector of the Tanzanian economy, accounts for about half of the national income, ¾ of merchandise export and its source of food and provides employment opportunities to about 80% of Tanzanians. It has linkages with the non farm sector through forward linkages to agro-processing, consumption and to industries and a market for manufactured good (Ngirwa, 1997). Agriculture in Tanzania is dominated by smallholder farmers (peasants) cultivating an average farm size of between 0.9 hectors and 3.0 hectors each. About 70% of Tanzania’s crop area is cultivated by hand hoes, 20% by ox plough and 1% by tractor. Food crop production dominates the agriculture economy 5.1 hectors are cultivated annually of which 85% is under food crop. Women constitute the main part of agricultural labour force. (MAFS, 2000), The concern about environmental issue is increasing at all levels, ranging from international to local level (Macarena’s, 1996). The main ultimate environmental problem that is of great concern is land degradation including destruction of soil and water resources, which are essential for life supporting system. Pollution, global climate change, and loss of biodiversity are some of consequences of degradation of resources all over the developing countries (WRI, 1992). In Sub –Saharan population pressure on land and dependency on agriculture are the most noted causal factors in environmental degradation. Livestock keepers and farmers affect the environment due to poor practices like deforestation, soil erosion, desertification, famine, drought, flooding very large number of animals in small area of land. The animals compete for pasture and hence resulting into the degradation of the environment (Madulu, 1995) and demand for fuel wood. Livestock keepers keep very large number of animals in small area of land. The animals compete for pasture and hence resulting into the degradation of the environment (Madulu, 1995). The human agricultural activities affected the environment through shifting cultivation, water resources degradation, overstocking and biodiversity loss (Reed, 1997). People in Dodoma Rural District depend on livestock and agriculture as the...