The term NGO seems to be deceptively simple. It may overlook the enormous variety and differential capabilities of different NGOs. In fact, NGOs offer a kaleidoscopic collection of organizations varying in origin, size, programmes, ideology, role strategy, funding, linkages evaluation, problem etc. NGOs embrace a bewildering group of organizations varying in terms of innumerable parameters. No standard definition can include all organizations working at present under the title of NGO, originally voluntarism was a doctrine which held that the will is dominant factor or it is a principle relying on one’s own free will for an action. The definitions of NGOs vary as: 1. According to Asian Development Bank the term non-governmental organization refers to organization * Not based in government.
* Not created to earn profit.
2. United Nations defines it “NGOs are private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interest of poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services or undertake community development” TYPES OF NGOS
Types of NGOs can be understood by their level of orientation and level of cooperation. 1. Types of NGOs by the level of orientation.
It has further types as under,
* Charitable orientation.
It often involves a paternalistic effort with little participation by ’’beneficiaries’’. It includes the ngo, s which directed the people towards meeting the needs of poor and helps them by gaining them food, clothing, medicine, provision of housing etc. such NGO; s may also undertake relief activities during natural or manmade herds. * Service orientation.
It includes with NGO, s with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services. In which the program is designed by the NGO, s and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the services. * Participatory orientation.
It is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly for example in the implementation of a project in any village by contributing,cash,tools,land,materials and labor etc. this type is basically cooperation based and on limited scale. * Empowering orientation.
The aim of these NGOs are to help poor people and develop a clear understanding of the social, political and economic factors which are effecting their lives, and aware them how can they solve their problem by using their resources and purpose to mobilize the people or self mobilization. In any case there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs acting as facilitators. 2. Types of NGOs by the level of operation.
It has further types which are as following.
* Community based organization (CBOs)
when people start feelings that what are their needs and how can they fulfill them. These NGO, s arises out of people’s own initiatives. These can includes sports clubs women organizations neighborhood organizations, religious and educational organizations. Some supported by NGO, s, national and international NGO, s and other independent outside help. Some are devoted to raising the consciousness of urban poor or helping them to understand their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing such services. * Citywide organizations.
These NGO, s are organized for some major or personal purpose. For example chambers of commerce and industry, coaliation of business, educational group. Some exist for other purposes and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor. * National NGOs.
It includes organizations such as the Red Cross, YMWCAs, YWCAs; professional organizations etc. Some of these has state branches and assists local NGOs. * International NGOs.
These range from secular agencies such as...