Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642, in Woolsthorpe, England. His father died before he was born, and his mother mother, Hannah Newton, remarried and moved away. She left Newton to be raised by his uncle. In 1654, he was sent to the local grammar school, then he enrolled at Trinity College, at the University of Cambridge, in 1661. He received his bachelor of arts in 1665, and was named a fellow of the College two years later. In 1666, Newton made three of his greatest discoveries. He developed and proved his theory that white light is composed of a mixture of other colors of light, which, when split apart by a prism, form a band of color called a spectrum. He also developed a binomial theorem and worked out a method of calculating the slope of curves and the area under them, called calculus. Both of these discoveries were a huge advance, but his most important innovation was the concept of gravity, the attraction between bodies in space that holds planets, moons and comets in orbit, and draws falling objects toward the earth. In 1669, Newton was appointed professor of mathematics at Trinity College. In the 1680's Newton finally finished and published his research, and it became known as the Principia. Principia made Newton an English celebrity. He was later elected president of the Royal Society in 1703, after the death of Hooke. Newton often argued with a German mathematician, Leibniz, over who discovered calculus first. Newton then dedicated his years to understand biblical prophecy and history. On March 20th of 1727, Newton passed away and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
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