Introduction:
The purpose of this lab was to prove Newton’s 2nd Law; which states accelerate equals force divided by mass (a=F/m). During this lab we were trying to find out the relationship between acceleration, force, and mass by using a air track, glider with picket fence, and photogates. Before I did the lab, I had already knew that acceleration, force, and mass were related. I just didn’t know how they were related. When recording the results of this lab we had to record the applied force in Newton’s. Newtons’s is a unit of measurement represented in m(meters) divided by s2(seconds squared). I think that F/m=a because in Newton’s second law, he tells us that force is equal to mass times acceleration (f=ma), so if you take the mass and divided by both sides to cancel it out on the right, you would end up with a=f/m.

Procedure:
First we weighed the glider and fence with the string attached, in kg(kilograms). Then we recorded in the table. Next we weighed the mass of the hanging weight in kg and recorded it in the table. Then we found the total mass being accelerated in kg by adding the mass of the hanging glider to the mass of the hanging weight. Fourth we found the applied force by taking the mass of the hanging weight and multiplying it by 9.8(gravity). Then we found the theoretical acceleration by using the formula a=F/m and plugged in the total mass for m and the applied force for F. By taking F and dividing it by m we can up with the theoretical acceleration. We then looked on the time graph and found the experimental acceleration by looking at the slope of the velocity time graph and recorded it on the table. Lastly we found the percent difference by taking experimental acceleration, subtracting it from the theoretical acceleration, and then dividing that answer by the theoretical acceleration. We then took that answer and multiplied it by 100 to give us a percent. We then reweighed the glider each time and increased...

...Lab 5
NEWTON’S THIRD LAW AND Tension FORCES
"Many a small thing has been made large by the right kind of advertising." -Mark Twain
"What is the difference between unethical and ethical advertising? Unethical advertising uses falsehoods to deceive the public; ethical advertising uses truth to deceive the public." -Vilhjalmur Stefansson
I saw a subliminal advertising executive, but only for a second.
-Steven Wright
• To develop an understanding and consequences of Newton's Third Law.
• To consider the characteristics of three different types of passive forces: tension (in strings, ropes, springs, and chains), normal forces (which support objects affected by gravity), and friction.
Overview
You may have learned this statement of Newton’s third law: “To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” What does this sentence mean?
Unlike Newton’s first two laws of motion, which concern only individual objects, the third law describes an interaction between two bodies. For example, what if you pull on your partner’s hand with your hand? Can you pull on your partner without your partner pulling back? The answer turns out to be a definite No! This is because of an essential characteristic of force itself; A force always acts between things, in this case your hand and your partner’s hand. The...

...through a consistent 50 dot per second ticker timer. The acceleration body in this experiment will be a small trolley pulled by a string that is pulled by the downfall of different masses which will then tell how mass affects acceleration.
Hypothesis: As the Mass increase so will the force.
Variables:
Independent Variable – The amount of mass tied at the end of the string
Dependent Variable – Force (worked out by acceleration)
Controlled Variable – Same amount of air resistant (stay in the same room), same surface of what the trolley is going to accelerate on, same trolley, have the string equally stretched out every time and same tick rate of the ticker timer.
The controlled variable will be controlled to create a fair test.
Apparatus:
* Power Pack
* Ticker Timer
* Ticker Tape
* Trolley
* 1 meter string
* Pulley wheel
* 50 gram weights x10
* Ruler
* Calculator (recommended)
* Sticky tape
Method:
To be done on bench
1. Plug the power pack into a power source.
2. Attach the power pack to the ticker timer, by attaching 1 plug from the black (negative) output of the power pack to one of the power input of the ticker timer and have the other power input of the ticker timer attached to the red output (positive) of the power pack
3. Have the power pad at 2 voltage
4. Switch the power source and the power pack on
5. Adjust the ticker timer to have roughly around 50 ticks per...

...Analysis
The experiment that was conducted was primarily about Newton’ssecondlaw of motion. Newton’ssecondlaw of motion states that a net force is required for a body to have acceleration. If a net force is applied on an object, then the object will accelerate with respect to the direction of the said force. The body’s acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to its mass. The experiment conducted was used to verify the relationships specified in Newton’ssecondlaw of motion.
There were 3 trials, and these were:
A. Constant Mass, Varying Net Force
B. Varying Mass, Constant Net Force
C. Varying Mass, Varying Net Force
In the said experiment, the formula used for the calculation of the experimental acceleration was:
As for the accepted value, the formula used was:
For the first trial, the net force changes when the mass of the mass hanger changes. The net force, N, is obtained by the equation of m2g, where m2 represents the hanging mass, and g is the constant gravitational pull, which is 9.8m/s2. The results of part A can be seen in the table below.
Mass of cart, m1 = 0.51kg
Distance traveled, s = 0.5m
TRIAL
m2
Net force,
Accepted acceleration
Time of travel
Experimental acceleration
% ERROR
1
0.02kg
0.19N
0.36m/s2
1.50s
0.44 m/s2
22.22%
2
0.04kg
0.39N
0.71 m/s2...

...E104: NEWTON’SSECONDLAW OF MOTION
METHODOLOGY
In Part A of the experiment (Constant Mass, Changing Net Force), place the dynamics track on the laboratory table. Make sure that it is horizontal by placing the dynamics cart on the track. If the dynamics cart does not move, then the track is already horizontal. Otherwise, make the necessary adjustments. Get the mass of the dynamics cart. Write this under m1 in Table 1. Set the first photogate at the 20-cm mark of the dynamics track and the second photogate at the 70-cm track. This is the distance in which the cart can travel. Write this under S in Table 1. Plug the first photogate to the number 1 slot of the smart timer and the second photogate to the number 2 slot. Ask for help from your instructor if you have difficulty in setting up the photogates and the smart timer. Set the smart timer by pressing the “Select Measurement” button until it shows “Time:”. Set the mode by pressing the “Select Mode” button until it shows “Time: Two Gates”. Tie one end of the string to the cart and the other end to the weight hanger. Set the dynamics cart on one end of the track and the weight hanger over the pulley. Refer to setup. (See Figures 2 and 3). For the first trial, use a total mass of 20g for the hanging weight. Write this under m2 in Table 1. Release the cart. Read the time of travel from the smart timer. Write the time of travel under t in Table 1. Repeat...

...Interpretation of Results
The objective of the experiment, entitled Newton’sSecondLaw of Motion, is to verify the direct proportionality of acceleration and net force if the mass of the body is constant and to verify the inverse proportionality of acceleration and mass if the net force is constant.
It is now clearly explained and proven that Newton’ssecondlaw of motion is true. By experiments, thelaw is proved. All data produced results parallel to what Newton states.
We can say that the acceleration is directly proportional to the net force if the mass of the body is constant. The acceleration increases as the net force increases.
The acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass if the net force is constant. The acceleration decreases as the mass of an object increases.
We also found out that the change in net force greatly affects the acceleration than of the change in mass of an object. This is proved by the third part of the experiment. When both the mass of the object and the net force increases, the change in net force will produce greater effect on the acceleration. We can also say that the acceleration will follow the direction of the net force.
mass | net force | acceleration |
0.02 kg | 0.916 N | 0.36 ms2 |
0.04 kg | 0.592 N | 0.60 ms2 |
0.06 kg | 0.588 N | 0.76 ms2 |
0.08 kg | 0.784 N | 0.87 ms2 |
0.1 0kg | 0.980 N | 0.96 ms2 |...

...February 24, 2012
Lab #8: Newton’sSecondLaw and Acceleration Due to Gravity
Purpose:
To observe a few effects of constant force and varying mass, constant mass and varying force and varying both mass and force and relate them to Newton’sSecondLaw.
Apparatus:
Theory and Background:
Newton’sSecondLaw of Motion states that the acceleration of an object is produced by a net force that is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Procedure:
We used Gate Timing with Acceleration software and photogate system to measure the time it takes for the glider to travel through both photogates. We had to level the air track by placing the cart at the middle of the track with the air blower on and adjusting the leveling screws on the legs of the track to get minimum movement of the cart. The cart should slowly oscillate back and forth by 10 cm to give more accurate data. The photogates were placed at least 50 cm apart and aligned so that the flag can pass through them without touching the photogates. We attached the hook and flag onto the cart and then attached the pulley to the end of the air track. A nylon line was attached to the hook of the cart and passed through the pulley with a hanger attached on the end. The...

...NEWTON’SLAWS OF MOTION
Newton's First Law of Motion
An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
There are two parts to this statement - one that predicts the behavior of stationary objects and the other that predicts the behavior of moving objects. The two parts are summarized in the following diagram.
The behavior of all objects can be described by saying that objects tend to "keep on doing what they're doing" (unless acted upon by an unbalanced force). If at rest, they will continue in this same state of rest. If in motion with an eastward velocity of 5 m/s, they will continue in this same state of motion (5 m/s, East). If in motion with a leftward velocity of 2 m/s, they will continue in this same state of motion (2 m/s, left). The state of motion of an object is maintained as long as the object is not acted upon by an unbalanced force. All objects resist changes in their state of motion - they tend to "keep on doing what they're doing."
EXAMPLES:
1. Suppose that you filled a baking dish to the rim with water and walked around an oval track making an attempt to complete a lap in the least amount of time. The water would have a tendency to spill from the container during specific locations on the track. In general the water spilled when:
* the container was at rest and you attempted...

...acceleration of a bird which is observed to change constantly its speed by 5 ft/sec every 4 seconds of time:
A) 1.25 ft/sec2 B) 2.25 ft/sec2 C) 1.025 ft/sec2 D) 5.10 ft/sec2
____7. What acceleration do you expect to impart to a block of mass 2.5 slugs resting on a frictionless plane if you push it with a force of 20 lb.?
A) 8 ft/sec2 B) 5 ft/sec C) 9 ft/sec2 D) 11 ft/sec2
____ 8. A 50 kilogram mass ball-bearing moves through a mark on the floor with an acceleration of 4 m/sec2. What was the force (in Newton's) acting on the ball-bearing at that point?
A) 150 Newton's B) 200 Newton's C) 175 Newton's D) 196 Newton's
_____9. If a bird had a mass of .78 kg and a velocity of 2.2 meters per sec. and a mosquito had a mass of .0842 kg and a velocity of 17.5 meters per sec. which would have the most acceleration?
A) neither B) mosquito C) bird D) they are equal
_____10. Which of Newton'sLaws Of Motion states "anybody moving uniformly in a straight line or at rest will remain in uniform motion or at rest, unless acted upon by some outside force"
A) Newton'ssecondLaw B) Newton's first Law C) Newton's third Law D) Newton's forth...

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