Newborn Screening

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INTRODUCTION
Rationale
In the early 1960s, scientist Robert Guthrie, PhD, developed a blood test that could determine whether newborns had the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU). People with PKU lack an enzyme needed to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which is necessary for normal growth in kids and for normal protein use throughout life. However, if too much phenylalanine builds up, it damages the brain tissue and can eventually cause substantial developmental delay. If kids born with PKU are put on a special diet right away, they can avoid the developmental delay the condition caused in past generations and lead normal lives (Lowdermilk, et.al, 2006). Since the development of the researchers have developed additional blood tests that can screen newborns for other disorders that, unless detected and treated early, can cause physical problems, developmental delay, and in some cases, death. In worldwide basis, in every 2,389,959 screened 45,283 infants are positive in newborn screening. This hilarious evidence makes every individual more cautious of the lives of the infants. Moreover, even rich people may be vulnerable to this. In the Philippines, 9.7% of all screened infants are positive to newborn screening as of 2011 based on the Philippine Health Statistics, DOH and Region VII ranked 2nd for most number of positive result of newborn screening. Problem arouses when parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards newborn screening causes an alteration with the way they provide appropriate care to their newborn. This study wants to identify the knowledge and attitudes of parents undergoing newborn screening. The researchers aim to identify different factors that may alter the knowledge and attitudes of these parents towards their children and to identify the possible solutions for these problems. In this regard, the researchers aim to determine the knowledge and attitudes of parents with newborn undergoing newborn screening. This goes to show that a study should be conducted to determine the differences of the knowledge and attitudes of parents toward newborn screening. This study will also thoroughly determine the factors that may cause in the variations of attitudes of different parents and the relationship of these factors to their attitudes. This study will provide a clearer understanding on how to deal the different level of knowledge and attitude and modify them to provide a warmer and open newborn screening a help for betterment of their newborn’s health development. This modification would then help parents’ understanding of the needs of their children.

The researchers are competent enough to conduct this study since the researchers are fully equipped with knowledge which they learn from Fundamentals of Nursing and Maternal and Child Health Nursing and Medical-Surgical Nursing. This knowledge is strengthened by the skills acquired from the clinical exposure to different clinical areas such as, Delivery Room – Operating Room and OB-Gyne ward of Sacred Heart Hospital.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Before the newborn and mother are discharged from the birthing unit the nurse informs the parents about the newborn screening tests and tells them when to return to the birthing center or clinic if further tests are needed. Some of the disorders that can be identified from a drop of blood obtained by a heel stick are cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital hypothyroidism are the only tests that are performed (AOG, Committee on Genetics, 2003). Early discharge put infants in at risks for delayed or even missed diagnosis of PKU and congenital hypothyroidism because of decreased sensitivity of screening prior to 24 hours of age. Newborn should be retested by two weeks of age if the first test was done prior to 24 hours of birth. Parent- children relationship builds up children’s characters and lives in their adaptation to their growth. Parent’s...
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