New Monarchs

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During the mid-fifteenth century, European governments were weakened by the war and rebellion which was a direct result of their feudal structure. In order to make their government stronger, numerous leaders known as the New Monarchs tried to bring about civil peace. These western European monarchies wanted to create a centralized government in which the king gained more power. The monarchs had their own motives for recreating their governments. Therefore, in doing so, they made sure to include laws which gave them wealth and power. Through methods of taxation, the kings were able to build secure armies to control feudal nobles. This then created more peace within the empires, as the conflicts between nobles no longer existed. Within England, France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, rulers were able to successfully warrant their label of the new monarchies through divine right. They created well-built, centralized governments, which came with accomplishments specific to each monarch. Understanding the historic origins, features, and accomplishments of England, France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire allow the differences in their downfalls to be distinguished along with the aspects which made each monarchy powerful.

Throughout the fifteenth century, a group of people known as the Tudors set up a dynasty in England, led by King Henry VII. In doing so, England created what is recognized as a new monarchy. History played an important role in the success of the Tudor Dynasty. The War of the Roses was an important event in history which allowed the Tudor Dynasty to become the family of the new monarchs in England. Prior to the War of the Roses, England was split up into two houses, the House of York and the House of Lancaster. Because of their signature badges, each house was named after a rose. The House of York was known as the White Rose, and the House of Lancaster was named after the Red Rose. In the process of fighting for control and power over the English monarchy, both houses became very weak. Since war had weakened both baronial families, the Tudors were able to conquer England and set up a strong dynasty in which the new monarchy was established. In defeating those involved in the War of the Roses, Henry VII ended civil problems throughout England. During his reign, (1461-1483) Henry VII and the people of the Tudor Dynasty managed to bring forth many accomplishments in regards to making a powerful government. He used a royal council in order to discuss disturbance of the peace within the monarchy and the punishments which would be enforced because of those disruptions. Henry VII met with his council in a room called the Star Chamber. Inside the Star Chamber, Henry VII displayed his true authority, and there was not a jury involved in the council. The Star Chamber brought about order, justice, and basica peace to the new monarchy in England. Because of this, the people living in the Tudor Dynasty considered Henry VII a strong king and a successful ruler. Nationalism was also known as a big success in the Dynasty of Tudor, because people had similar views on the king and his new monarchy. Because people agreed that Henry VII was an influential and important leader, peace was kept for a much longer period of time throughout England. The king defended his leadership with the argument that God had chosen him and granted him "the divine right to rule". In using divine right as his ally, Henry VII firmly justified why he had become the supreme ruler of England. Through his achievements as a ruler, the king proved his authority over the English monarchy. For these reasons, England warranted the title new monarch.

In fifteenth-century France, the development of a new monarchy was also taking place. Before this new monarchy evolved, France was not much larger than one city, Paris. Since the first king of France ruled, it slowly expanded. After 500 years of war, conquest, marriage, and inheritance, monarchs were able to...
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