New Imperialism and the Great American West

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New Imperialism
* Informal. (scramble for concessions
* Formal (scramble for colonies)
* Unlike earlier wave of colonization, shift from Americas to Africa and Asia Aided by industrialization
* Spread of industrialization end British hegemony
* Need informal markets for manufactures goods free of foreign competition * Supply of cheap raw materials and agricultural products if to keep dominance in trade * Industrial inventions:

* Steamship, guns…
Imperial Powers
* For majority of worlds pop. The late 19th century mean subjugation to rule by: * British, French, German, Italians, Portuguese, Russians, japs, Americans. Berlin Conference
* Non-participation in Berlin conference (1884) basis of us rejection of imperial ambitions. * “scramble for Africa”
* By 1890 us politicians believe being left behind/ supported by frontier thesis) Us Rejection of imperial ambitions
* Imperialism continuation of Westward expansion
* Span-American war of 1898 does not signal not a departure from turn-of-the-century us foreign reform * Continuation of western expansionist ambitions and Great Powers competition over the Caribbean basin * Pacific route to East Asia’s wealth dated back to Columbus. * Second indust. Rev. that peaked with 1893 depression Precursors for civilizing

* Provide model for continuation policies abroad:
* Monroe doctrine
* Indian removal act of 1830
* Mexican American war
Long Depression
* Worldwide
* 1873-1896
* Causes
* Business cycle (interconnectedness a result of market rev.) * Speculation- railroads
* Wards- including Franco-Prussian war and American civil war * Consequences
* New imperialism
* Growing labor unrest
Economic Motivations
* Competition over markets
* American politicians come to believe that Latin America and Asia markets would deflect social conflict

Ideological motivations
* Anglo-Saxon racism at home
* Anti catholic, anti radical, racist traditions, replaced free white * Civilizing mission abroad
* Expressed as the white man’s burden
* Symbolized by Theodore Roosevelt
* Expressed the consolidation of the Americans nation following civil war * Motivation for the US to enter the race for empire in the late 1890s US Imperialism
* Alaska
* Hawaii
* Spanish American war
* Were all 3 stages
* Stewards Folly
* On march 30 1867 secretary of state William Seward organized purchase of Alaska for 7.2 million from Tsar Alexander II who hoped to cover debts from war and avoid future conflicts from Prussian empire Hawaii

* American sugar planters overthrew Queen in 1893
* Annexed in 1898.

The Great American West
* After the Civil War, Texas cattle ranchers began to drive their cattle north along the Chisholm and Goodnight-Loving Trails to the rail lines in Kansas and Nebraska’s cattle towns: Ellsworth, Dodge City, and Abilene * During the late 1870s and early 1880s the railroad lines reached Texas and shifted the meatpacking industry to the Chicago stockyards Transcontinental Railroad

* 1863-1869
* Opened up the West in 1869
* Replaced slower and more dangerous Oregon and California trails Homestead Act of 1862
* Federal government granted railroad companies land grants * Homestead Act of 1862-federal law that offered 160 acres of public land to any settler 18 years or older who filed a deed of title and lived on the land for five years Homesteaders

* During the 1880s hundreds of thousands of farmers were brought west by the railroads and the Homestead Act of 1862 * However droughts and falling wheat prices, which reflected the region’s growing dependency on the national and world market, often ruined settlers The Grange

* The Grange (1867)-created cooperative programs and encouraged anti-monopoly...
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