New Directions - Exploration, Expansion, Society, and the Arts

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Unit 3: New Directions – Exploration, Expansion, Society, and the Arts Chapters 15 & Palmer Study Guide

Part I Identifying Key Terms
Notable People

* Prince Henry the Navigator: Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal developed a school of merchant and sailor to prepare them for exploration. He supported the exploration of the West African coastline and later controlled the flow of gold to Europe. * Christopher Columbus: After Vasco da Gama reached India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope, Columbus decided to just sail West without knowing the presence of the “New World.” His landing in the Caribbean in 1492 ushered in the era of European exploration and domination of the New World. * Bartholomew Diaz: In 1488, Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope and returned back to Portugal without reaching India. His journey gave motivation for Vasco da Gama to round the Cape of Good Hope and reach India. * Hernando Cortez: In 1521 Hernando Courts conquers the Mexica (Aztec) Empire by convincing the natives that he was the God. He used the encomienda system which was a disguised form of slavery. * Bartolome de las Casas: de las Casas, a former conquistador, publicly criticized the ruthlessness with which Columbus and his successors treated the Amerindians. * Michel de Montaigne

* Giovanni Bernini
* Francisco Pizarro: Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire in 1533. He used the encomienda system which was a disguised form of slavery. * Ferdinand Magellan: In 1519 Magellan proves the world round and the world is a lot bigger than expected by circumnavigating the globe. He convinces the Spanish to give up gaining power in the spice trade. * Vasco da Gama: Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut, India in 1498 and launches the Portuguese military expansion. His motives for his journey to India were “Christians and spices.” * Fuggers: Fuggers were on of the banking families like the Medicis who used usury, change in high interests, to gain money and power. Later, the Fuggers were replaced by state banks in Holland.

Terms and Events

* Columbian Exchange: Both Europe and the New world were transformed as a result of the Age of Exploration and the exchanges that occurred between tow regions. For Europeans, the Columbian exchange resulted in improved diet, increased wealth, and the rise of global empires. * Conquistadors

* Encomienda: Encomienda system was a system in which the Amerindians worked for an owner for certain number of days per week. Spain’s ability to forcibly utilize Amerindian labor was a major reason why the Spanish Empire imported few slaves form Africa. * Joint-stock company: Joint stock companies allowed investors to pool resources for a common purpose. One successful example is the Dutch E. India Company. * Price Revolution: The price revolution occurred due to population growth, increase in volume of money, and the influx of gold and silver from New World. The middle class (merchant, bankers, etc) benefited from the price revolution and prospered. * Treaty of Tordesillas: The treaty divided the New World between Spain and Portugal. It gave Spain the exclusive right to the African slave trade (asiento). * Mercantilism: Nations sought a self-sufficient economy by creating a favorable balance of trade where one’s country exported far more than it imported. * Triangular trade: The rianglular trade developed form the Columbian Exchange that links Africa, the New World, and Europe by trade. Both Europe and the New world were transformed as a result of the Age of Exploration and the exchanges that occurred. * Middle Passage

* Malleus Maleficarum
* Dutch East India Company: The Company, founded in 1602, founded settlement in South Africa, took over many Portuguese trading posts, and seized Malaca in 1641. It was one of the first joint stock companies and was the beginning of capitalism. * Bank of Amsterdam:

* London...
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