Since genetic cloning is a very wide topic, the focus of my paper lies mainly on the new discoveries which might be beneficial to human beings. The focus of the first section of the paper is on the various cloning techniques geneticists use nowadays. They techniques included range from the simplest and suitable for all situations, to complicated and suitable for certain areas.
The second section of the paper, the longest section, discusses five of the many researches performed over the last five years. The researches are arranged in descending chronological order, dating from February 1997, to April 1992. These researches are discussed because they all have one thing in common: they may be beneficial to human beings later on. For example, the newest entry in my paper, and perhaps the one that shocked the whole world, was the report about the first successful clone mammal from non-embryonic cells. This will be helpful in the future for patients waiting for organ transplants. Scientists will be able to clone a fully functional organ, and replace it with the damaged one. The report on the cloning of the human's morphine receptor is advantageous to us because this helps scientists to develop new analgesics.
The third section of the paper contains a brief discussion about the advantages and the disadvantages of genetic cloning. It speculates how our future will improve due to the technologies we are developing, and also the biggest drawbacks which might come from it.
The last part of the paper, is the explanation of complicated terms used in this paper. The terms which will be explained are printed in bold terms throughout the paper. This section, the glossary, is like the ones which appears in textbooks.
New Developments or Research in Genetic Cloning
Genetic cloning is one of the many aspects which has been recently introduced to improve our quality of live. Researchers are trying to improve our lives everyday applying genetic engineering onto our everyday lives. Cows can be genetically altered to produce more milk, receptors in our body could be cloned to improve our health. The techniques and new research reported in this paper is just one tree out of the whole forest of genetic engineering.
Part I: Techniques of Genetic Cloning
Geneticists use different cloning methods for different purposes. The method used to identify human diseases are different than the method used to clone a sheep. The following are used techniques in genetic cloning.
In recombinant DNA, the desired segment is clipped from the surrounding DNA and copied millions of times. Each restriction enzyme recognizes a unique nucleotide sequence wherever it occurs along the DNA spiral. This nucleotide sequence, known as the recognition site is a short, symmetric sequence of bases repeated on both strands of the double helix. After the segment is removed, the ragged, or "sticky" ends that remain after cleavage by the restriction enzyme allow a DNA restriction fragment from one organism to join to the complementary ends. This method allows a foreign DNA to be cloned in a bacteria. The result will be identical clones of the original recombinant molecule in hundreds of copies per cell.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
The PCR is a method of gene amplification. It is a better method than bacterial cloning because of its greater sensitivity, selectivity, and speed. Moreover, it does not require bacterial vectors and rapidly amplifies the chosen segment of DNA in the test tube without the need for living cells.
In this process, the DNA sequence to be amplified is selected by primers, which are short pieces of nucleic acid that correspond to sequences flanking the DNA to be amplified. After an excess of primers is added to the DNA, together with a heat-stable DNA polymerase, the strands of both the genomic DNA and the...