IV. Major Progressivism Programs
1. Progressive education--John Dewey led movement that focused on personal growth, not mastery of body of knowledge and learning through experience. 2. Charles Eliot of Harvard pioneered elective courses and new teaching techniques (such as seminars) to make university learning more meaningful 3. Women began attending colleges in large numbers (by 1920, 47% of total enrollment was female). 4. Believing that more education would help bring an enlightened population, Progressives pushed enrollments to record levels (86% of children in schools by 1920) without seriously assessing how schools were doing. B. Law--judges opinions needed to be based on factual information, not just oral arguments and precedents 1. Muller V. Oregon (1908)--limited women's working hours
2. Not all Progressive legal principles prevailed. In Lochner v. New York (1905), the Supreme Court overturned a New York law limiting bakers' working hours. C. Settlement houses--Jane Addams and others established group homes in city slums to aid poor urban residents. 1. Promoted public health reform in cities, chlorinating water and tightening sanitary regulations 2. Developed education and craft programs for residents
3. Created neighborhood health clinics and dispensaries
D. Racial anti-discrimination efforts
1. Booker T. Washington (Atlanta Compromise) argued for self-help and accommodation on the part of blacks to white society 2. W.E.B. DuBois (Niagara Movement--1905) urged blacks to assert themselves and agitate for political and economic rights. Formed NAACP to use legal means to end racial discrimination E. Women's rights
1. While the number of employed women stayed constant from 1900-1920 (20%), the type of work switched from domestic labor (servants, cooks, launderesses) to clerical work (clerks, typists, bookkeepers), factory work, and professionals. 2. Most women still held the lowest paying and least opportune jobs 3....
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