Neurons

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NAME ________________________________

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html

On the left side, click on “Explore,” then click on “The Neuron,” then click on “Millions and Billions of Cells: Type of Neurons” to answer the following questions:

1. A neuron is a ___NERVE___ cell. The brain is made up of about _100__billion neurons. 2. Neurons are similar to other cells in the body in some ways such as: a. Neurons are surrounded by a ________MEMBRANE_______________________. b. Neurons have a ______NUCLEUS____________ that contains __GENES______. c. Neurons contain cytoplasm, mitochondria and other ___ORGANELLES_________. 3. However, neurons differ from other cells in the body in some ways such as: a. Neurons have specialized projections called ____DENDRITES_____ and ___AXONS_. b. Dendrites bring information to the ___CELL BODY__. c. AXONS_take information away from the cell body. d. Neurons communicate with each other through an ___ELECTROCHEMICAL__process. 4. Neurons form specialized connections called ____SYNAPSES_______ and produce special chemicals called ____NEUROTRANSMITTERS__________ that are released at the synapse.

Scroll down to the chart comparing axons and dendrites. Fill in the answers: There are several differences between axons and dendrites: AXONS Take information __AWAY__ the cell body SMOOTH________ Surface Generally only ____1______ per cell No ______RIBOSOMES______________ Can have _______MYELIN____________ Branch further from the cell body DENDRITES Bring information _TOWARD__ the cell body ROUGH______ Surface (dendritic spines) Usually ________MANY______ per cell Have ribosomes No ________MYELIN__________ insulation Branch ____NEAR______ the cell body

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Take the short neuron quiz at the bottom of the page, and correctly answer these questions: 1. Neuron part that releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. PRESYNAPTIC TERMINAL. 2. Fatty material that surrounds some axons. ____MYELIN_______________________. 3. Takes information away from the cell body. ___AXON____________________________. 4. The gaps in the myelin sheath. ____NODES OF RANVIER_________________________. 5. Part of neuron that contains the nucleus. ____CELL BODY (OR SOMA)________________. 6. Takes information to the cell body. _____DENDRITE________________________. 7. Organelle in neuron that contains genetic material. _______NUCLEUS___________________.

Go back to “Explore,” then click on “Brain Basics,” then on “Divisions of the Nervous System” to answer these questions: 1. What is the definition of “ neuroanatomy?” _STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM______ 2. The nervous system can be divided into "systems" -- what are they? Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System. 3. The central nervous system is divided into two major parts. What are they? ___BRAIN____________ and _________SPINAL CORD_________________ 4. The brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) and trillions of support cells called __GLIA OR (GLIAL CELLS)________________________. 5. The peripheral nervous system is divided into two major parts, the __SOMATIC___ nervous system and the ___AUTONOMIC___ nervous system, and a third part called the ___ENTERIC__ nervous system. 6. The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibers that send sensory information to the _CENTRAL___ nervous system AND motor nerve fibers that project to ___SKELETAL___MUSCLES_______. 7. The autonomic nervous system is divided into three parts: the ___SYMPATHETIC__ nervous system, the _PARASYMPATHETIC___ nervous system and the _ENTERIC____ nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle of the viscera (internal organs) and __GLANDS______. 8. The ___ENTERIC___ nervous system is a third division of the autonomic nervous system that you do not hear much about. The enteric nervous system is a meshwork of nerve fibers that innervate the viscera (_GASTROINTESTINAL...
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