Neurology Introduction

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  • Topic: Nervous system, Central nervous system, Brain
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Neuroscience:
Past, Present, and Future

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
At the end of this topic student should be able to: Discuss the historical background of neuroscience – views of the brain in different era Discuss the history of modern neuroscience State the levels of analysis based on their complexities Explain the scientific process Discuss some major disorder of nervous system

INTRODUCTION
 Human nature
 Curiosity, emotion (happiness & hurt), movement, reasoning, learning, memory (remember & forget),and madness Neuroscience definition Study of the brain / nervous system The Society for Neuroscience Association of professional scientist In need of interdisciplinary approach to understand the brain

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
 Prehistoric ancestors Brain was vital to life Brain surgery (Trepanation) Aim: not to kill but cure Skulls show signs of healing after surgery Views of ancient Egypt Heart: consider as seat of soul and memory (not the brain)

Neuroscience:exploring the brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, Paradiso, Lippincott Williams & wilkins

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
Views of the brain by ancient Greece Correlation between structure and function Hippocrates Brain: organ of sensation and seat of intelligence Aristotle Heart: the centre of intellect Brain: radiator for the cooling of blood that was overheated by the seething heart.

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
Views of the brain: Roman Empire Galen-Greek physicion Major parts of brain: -cerebrum (sensation/store memory) -cerebellum (movement control centre) -ventricles (contain fluids/humors)

Neuroscience:exploring the brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, Paradiso, Lippincott Williams & wilkins

Neuroscience:exploring the brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, Paradiso, Lippincott Williams & wilkins

Neuroscience:exploring the brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, Paradiso, Lippincott Williams & wilkins

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
Views of the brain: Renaissance Rene Descartes- Fluid-mechanical theory of brain function Mind-spiritual entity that receives sensation and commands the actions of the body by communicating with machinery of the brain via pineal gland Philosophical mind-brain problem Determine the nature of mind; - human mind is distinct from the brain (it is mental or hidden?) or - is it physical properties of body?

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
 The brain according to Descartes
Hollow nerve from the eyes project to the brain ventricles. The mind influence the motor response by controlling the pineal gland, which work as a valve to control movement through the nerves that inflate the muscle Neuroscience:exploring the brain, 3rd Paradiso, Lippincott Williams & wilkins Ed, Bear, Connors,

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
Views of the brain: The 17th and 18th Centuries Closer look of brain: - gray matter & white matter White matter- continuous with the nerves of the body, contain fibers that bring information to and from the gray matter

Neuroscience:exploring the brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, Paradiso, Lippincott Williams & wilkins

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
Views of the brain: end of 18th Centuries Central nervous system (CNS) - brain (cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem) -spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) - network of nerves trough body

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
Observation of:  bumps (called gyri)  grooves - sulci - fissures

Neuroscience:exploring the brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, Paradiso, Lippincott Williams & wilkins

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
SPECIAL NOTES Review : end of 18th century  Brain injury- disrupt sensation, movement and thought (can death)  Brain communicate the body via nerves  Brain has diff. parts  perform diff. functions Brain operates like a machine, follows the law of nature

THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
Views of the Brain: The Nineteenth Century  Nerves as wires- conduct electric to and from the brain  Benjamin Franklin - understanding...
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