Model of Betty Neuman
* “The model was originally developed as a graduate course in 1970, first published in 1972, classified as a systems model in 1974” (“The Neuman Systems Model (5th ed.) by B. Neuman and J. Fawcett (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2011),” 2012, Para. 1)
* “The Neuman systems model focuses on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors” Fawcett, (2001 para.1)
* As described in above quotation it is easy to understand that the most important concept in Neuman Theory is that a person is a layered multidimensional being, and a complete system with interrelated parts such as internal and external environments. Each layer of complete being consists of five person variable or subsystems: * Physiological - Refers of the physicochemical structure and function of the body. * Psychological - Refers to mental processes and emotions. * Socio-cultural - Refers to relationships and social/cultural expectations and activities. * Spiritual - Refers to the influence of spiritual beliefs. * Developmental - Refers to those processes related to development over the lifespan. (Neuman, 2008)
* A person maintains balance and harmony by adjusting to the stress and defending against tension-producing stimuli. Internal parts is the adaptation or factors that help defend against stressors, and external factors are the physical environment and the personal such as nurses, health care team, spiritual team, family, friends that surround patient.
* As Neuman said “Wellness is Equilibrium”, this theory influences nurses to understand the internal and external factors that create stressors in patient and families lives. First of all being ill is not a normal stressor, in addition to that the noise, the air, the food, the care team and support, spiritual practices, and supports of family and friends are as essential as medication and treatments for...
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