Most NS cases are caused by primary glomerular disease. In white patients, membranous nephropathy causes 33% of nephrotic syndrome, while focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is responsible for 50-57% of NS in the black population. Secondary causes of NS include diabetes mellitus, medications, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cancer, infections, amyloidosis (Hull & Goldsmith, 2008b), and minimal change nephropathy (Mok, Cheung, & Lo, 2010). Risk factors associated with NS include family history of NS, intravenous drug use, Hepatitis B or C infection, HIV, immunosuppression, having taken nephrotoxic medications, chronic analgesia use, pregnancy, and allergic reaction (Schub & Jaffe, 2011).
2 Clinical Manifestations The most common presentation of nephrotic syndrome is new onset peripheral edema. Initially periorbital edema is noticed, as well as genital and lower extremity edema, and ascites. Some... [continues]
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