Neo-Confucianism vs Confucianism

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There was a huge revival of Confucianism in the Song dynasty. Confucian teachings were central to the public service examination system, the identity of the scholars, the family system, and political discourse. Confucianism had changed over the centuries since the death of Confucius in 479 B.C. Confucius’s teachings that were recorded by his followers in the Analects, were still a big guide, as were the texts that came to be called the Confucian classics, which had poetry, historical records, moral and ritual instruction, and a divine manual. But the issues stressed by Confucian teachers changed as Confucianism became associated with the state from about 100 BCE on, and as it had competition from Buddhism, from the second century BCE onward. Confucian teachers responded to the challenge of Buddhist beliefs by developing their own story of the natural and human world. In the late Tang dynasty, the Confucian revival began to succeed in the Song period and continued in the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. The revived Confucianism of the Song period (Neo-Confucianism) emphasizes self-cultivation as a path not only to self-fulfillment but to the formation of a moral and pleasant society and state. The revival of Confucianism in Song times was accomplished by teachers and scholars who gave Confucian teachings new significance. Scholars of the Song period such as Fan Zhongyan (989-1052) and Sima Guang (1019-1086) provided undeniable examples of the man who put service to the state above his personal interest. The Song philosopher Zhu Xi (1130-1200) is known for his blend of Neo-Confucian philosophy. Zhu Xi wrote notes to the Four Books of the Confucian tradition, which he inscribed as important to the education of scholars. Zhu Xi also learned the theory and practice of education and in the assembly of a useful manual of family rules. In conclusion Confucianism did change over time after the death of Confucius mainly by the teachings of students and followers of...
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