1. What was the state of society in South Africa like and how did it influence Nelson Mandela? 2. When did he join the ANC and create the African National Congress Youth League? 3. What influential on Nelson Mandela led to his fight for civil rights during his time in jail, and how did he do it? 4. What did Nelson Mandela do after taking over power in South Africa? 5. What’s South Africa like today, after all the achievements that Nelson Mandela struggled for his whole life? Discuss the significant contributions Nelson Mandela made in building a free, equal, and post-apartheid South Africa. Nelson Mandela’s Early Life
Rolihlahla Mandela was born on July 18, 1918 in Transkei, South Africa (Cold War Museum, 2014), and was given the name “Nelson” by his teacher. He changed the history of South Africa and brought democracy to his nation. After the death of his father, he was placed under the care of a wealthy relative, and was the first person to attend school in his family. He began at the College of Fort Hare in 1938, where he generated his political interest. Soon he was expelled for being involved with the Student Representative Council and their boycott against university policies. He ran away from home to avoid an arranged marriage. In 1942, he graduated from the University of Witwatersrand with a degree in law (Nelson Childhood, 2014). Apartheid In South Africa
The National Party gained power in South Africa and developed a system called apartheid to limit the rights of the blacks until the 1990s. Black people were forced to use separate public facilities and lived in separate areas from the whites. Years later, the Great Depression and World War II brought increasing economic woes to South Africa, which convinced the government to strengthen its policies of racial segregation. They even set their goals to separate the black people from each other, and to divide them along tribe lines to decrease their political power. The government banned marriages between the whites and blacks, limited contact between the races, and the activity of non-white people for participating in national government. As time went by, apartheid became worse, and new laws were passed which told the black people where to live and work. Nelson Mandela studied to become a lawyer to protect the blacks, and working as a lawyer strengthened his feelings against apartheid. The African National Congress
While apartheid was running in South Africa, most of the black people didn’t fight against it or many of them would have been arrested or killed. However, there were still a number of tem who stood up bravely for their nation. Studying law at the University of Witwatersrand made Nelson Mandela fight against racial discrimination. To continue his political career, he joined the African National Congress, a national political party against racism in 1944 (Cold War Museum, 2014). Working with other party members, he established the ANC’s youth league, the ANCYL, which also pushed opposition to the apartheid system. Nelson Mandela helped lead the ANC’s 1952 campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws, and moved around the country to sign up people who volunteered and were prepared to break the apartheid laws. Over a 9-year-period, he was put under banning orders (Nelson Mandela: History of South Africa, 2014). In 1952, he became the president of the ANC for being an active member. On December 5, 1956, along with all the other 155 members of the ANC, Mandela was arrested and charged with high treason against the government (Nelson Mandela - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com, 2014). At that moment, the young South Africans still fought against apartheid. Later, they were all acquitted, and Nelson Mandela became the National President of the ANC Youth League. The Imprisonment of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela was arrested again in 1962 for defying the government (Cold War...
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