Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (Xhosa pronunciation: [xoˈliːɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; born 18 July 1918)[1] served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. As president from 1994 to 1999, he frequently gave priority to reconciliation.

In South Africa, Mandela is often known as uTata Madiba, an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela's clan.

Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four decades, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. Contents

* 1 Early life
* 2 Political activity
o 2.1 Anti-apartheid activities
o 2.2 Arrest and Rivonia trial
o 2.3 Imprisonment
o 2.4 Release
o 2.5 Negotiations
* 3 Presidency of South Africa
o 3.1 Lockerbie trial
* 4 Marriage and family
o 4.1 First marriage
o 4.2 Second marriage
o 4.3 Third marriage
* 5 Retirement
o 5.1 Health
o 5.2 Elders
o 5.3 AIDS engagement
o 5.4 Criticism of U.S. and U.K. foreign policy
o 5.5 Ismail Ayob controversy
+ 5.5.1 Allegations
o 5.6 Blood Diamond controversy
o 5.7 Zimbabwe and Robert Mugabe
* 6 Acclaim
o 6.1 Orders and decorations
o 6.2 Musical tributes
o 6.3 Published biographies
o 6.4 Cinema and television
o 6.5 Statues and civic tributes
o 6.6 Nelson Mandela Day
o 6.7 Other
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links

Early life
Nelson Mandela circa 1937[2]

Nelson Mandela belongs to a cadet branch of the Thembu dynasty, which reigns in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's Cape Province.[3] He was born in Mvezo, a small village located in the district of Umtata, the Transkei capital.[3] He has Khoisan ancestry on his mother's side.[4] His patrilineal great-grandfather Ngubengcuka (who died in 1832), ruled as the Inkosi Enkhulu, or king, of the Thembu people.[5] One of the king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname. However, because he was only the Inkosi's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan (the so-called "Left-Hand House"[6]), the descendants of his branch of the royal family were not eligible to succeed to the Thembu throne.

Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, served as chief of the town of Mvezo.[7] However, upon alienating the colonial authorities, they deprived Mphakanyiswa of his position, and moved his family to Qunu. Despite this, Mphakanyiswa remained a member of the Inkosi's Privy Council, and served an instrumental role in Jongintaba Dalindyebo's ascension to the Thembu throne. Dalindyebo would later return the favour by informally adopting Mandela upon Mphakanyiswa's death.[8] Mandela's father had four wives, with whom he fathered thirteen children (four boys and nine girls).[8] Mandela was born to his third wife ('third' by a complex royal ranking system), Nosekeni Fanny. Fanny was a daughter of Nkedama of the Mpemvu Xhosa clan, the dynastic Right Hand House, in whose umzi or homestead Mandela spent much of his childhood.[9] His given name Rolihlahla means "to pull a branch of a tree", or more colloquially, "troublemaker".[10][11]

Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend a school, where his teacher Miss Mdingane gave him the...
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