Nelson Mandela was born on the 18 of July 1918
In 1944, Mandela, along with Tambo, helped form the ANC Youth League, which called for radical African Nationalism grounded in the principle of national self-determination. In 1947, Mandela was elected to the Secretary ship of the Youth League, which came to dominate the ANC by 1948. Discrimination against the majority black South African population was written into law following the victory of the National Party, whose membership was dominated by the white settlers of Dutch descent known as Afrikaners, in the 1948 election. In 1949, Mandela was elected to the National Executive Committee (NEC) of the ANC, and named President of the Youth League the following year. In 1952, Mandela travelled throughout South Africa recruiting volunteers for a major civil-disobedience campaign. He was arrested and convicted for organizing the campaign, and was confined to Johannesburg for six months. During this time he passed his bar exam, and soon founded South Africa's first black law partnership with Tambo. Mandela was also the brains behind the "M-Plan" (named for him), which organized the ANC members into a nationwide underground network. Throughout the 1950s, Mandela was the victim of many forms of repression. He was banned, arrested and imprisoned. From 1956 to 1961, he was one of the accused in the Treason Trial, which came at a huge cost to his legal practice and his political work. Following the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960, the ANC was outlawed. Mandela was acquitted in 1961, after which he went underground and formed the ANC's military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (The Spear of the Nation). He became the unit's commander-in-chief. In 1962, Mandela left the country unlawfully and travelled abroad for several months. Upon his return, he was charged with illegal exit from the country and incitement to strike, for which he was sentenced to five years in prison with hard labour. In April 1982, Mandela was moved to Polls moor...
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